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Ward, Artemas - vēsture

Ward, Artemas - vēsture


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Tods, Tomass

Tods, Tomass (1765-1826) Augstākās tiesas tiesnesis: 1765. gada 23. janvārī dzimis Virdžīnijā, Tods bija zīdainis, kad nomira viņa tēvs. Pēc grūtībām iegūt izglītību viņš pameta studijas un iestājās armijā pēdējos revolucionārā kara gados. 1786. gadā viņš kļuva par audzinātāju kādam radiniekam Kentuki, kur naktī studēja jurisprudenci. Gada beigās viņš sāka praktizēt juristu. Tods iesaistījās centienos padarīt Kentuki par štatu un tika iecelts par visu to konvenciju lietvedi, kuru rezultātā Kentuki tika uzņemta Savienībā. Viņš tika iecelts par ASV tiesas sekretāru Kentuki rajonā, un, kad Kentuki kļuva par štatu 1799. gadā, Tods bija Apelācijas tiesas sekretārs. 1801. gadā viņš tika iecelts par Apelācijas tiesas ceturto tiesnesi, pēc tam par tās pašas tiesas priekšsēdētāju 1806. gadā. 1807. gadā Tods tika iecelts par ASV Augstākās tiesas tiesnesi. Gan Apelācijas tiesā, gan Augstākajā tiesā viņš strādāja, lai izveidotu godīgus un saprātīgus zemes likumus Kentuki. Tods strādāja Augstākajā tiesā līdz 1826. gadam un nomira tā paša gada 7. februārī.

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Par

Ģenerālis Artemas Ward muzejs, kas iekļauts Nacionālajā vēsturisko vietu reģistrā, bija Amerikas revolūcijas pirmā virspavēlnieka ģimenes māja. Tas stāv uz Vecā pasta ceļa Šrūsberijā, Masačūsetsā, trīsdesmit piecas jūdzes uz rietumiem no Bostonas.

Māja tika uzcelta kā neliela sāls kastīte laikā no 1720. līdz 1730. gadam jaunajā Šrūsberijas apmetnē. Lai gan tā tika uzcelta Nahum Ward saimniecībā, kas paliks Ward ģimenē paaudzēm, tā nebija ģimenes māja. Tā kalpoja par īrnieku mājām, līdz 1763. gadā Artemas Vards pārcēlās ar ģimeni. Tā tika paplašināta 1785. un 1830. gadā, lai vienlaikus varētu uzņemt divas ģimenes, kā arī saimniecības rokas un palīdzību mājsaimniecībā.

Sētā ir arī vairākas saimniecības ēkas, tostarp milzīgā kūts, sarga māja un piena māja. Saimniecības ēkās tika veiktas tikpat lielas izmaiņas kā mājā, mazākas ēkas tika apvienotas vai pārveidotas dažādos lietojumos.

Pats interesantākais, ka šķūnis kādreiz bija divi atsevišķi šķūņi. 1848. gadā Tomasam Valteram II palātam šie šķūņi tika pārvietoti kopā un paplašināti, lai lielu daļu saimniecības darbību apvienotu zem viena jumta. Process tika turpināts 1850. gadā, pievienojot vecu kautuvi un veikalu, kas pārbūvēts par kukurūzas māju un etiķa istabu.

Šo ēku elastīga izmantošana un atkārtota izmantošana palīdzēja ģimenei gadu gaitā sekot līdzi dažādiem tirgus apstākļiem. Neskatoties uz to, saimniecība vairs nebija rentabla un faktiski tika gandrīz pārdota ārpus ģimenes 19. gadsimta beigās. Mums par laimi, māju iegādājās Henrijs Galbraits Vards, un pēc tam to uzturēja virkne Ward ģimenes sieviešu.

Vispirms Elizabete Varda un Harieta Vorda, pēc tam viņu brāļameitas Ella, Klāra un Florence kalpoja par mājas aprūpētājiem. To darot, šīs sievietes aktīvi ierakstīja ģimenes stāstus par māju un tās saturu, pārveidojot to no mājām par ģimenes muzeju.

Mēs aicinām jūs apmeklēt Artemas palātas namu, izmantojot mūsu virtuālo ceļojumu. Izmantojiet grīdas plānu, lai izvēlētos no dažādām apskatāmām istabām. Noklikšķiniet uz istabas, un jūs redzēsit šīs telpas skatu, kā arī tur atrodamo objektu izvēli. Uzziniet vairāk par konkrētiem objektiem, noklikšķinot uz attēla sīktēla.

Šo sieviešu vēsturiskās intereses sniedzās ārpus pašas mājas, un 1892. gadā Elizabete Vorda publicēja pilnu Šrūsberijas pilsētas vēsturi, Old Times in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts: Gleanings from History and Tradition. Harieta bija pēdējā palāta, kas dzīvoja mājā, un Florence bija pēdējā, kas dzīvoja īpašumā, kas 1925. gadā tika uzdāvināts Hārvardas universitātei.

Artems Ward, ģenerāļa Artemas Ward mazmazmazdēls un reklāmas magnāts, bija iegādājies māju no Henrija Galbraita Varda un uzcēlis mītnes māju, lai Florence varētu dzīvot. Viņš atklāja savu dziļo interesi par savas ģimenes vēsturi, gan publicējot grāmatas, kas saistītas ar ģimeni un nodrošinot māju pēc viņa nāves. Viņš ziedoja māju kopā ar ievērojamu dotāciju par nosacījumiem, ka Hārvarda uztur mājas kā “publisku patriotisku muzeju” un vairāk izgaismo ģenerālmajora Artemas Ward dienestu. Vardu ģimenes pastāvīgā interese par savu mantojumu nodrošināja šīs unikālās Amerikas vēstures daļas saglabāšanu pat tad, kad tā izgāja no viņu rokām.


Nahum Ward

Nahum Ward (1684-1754) bija viens no Shrewsbury, Massachusetts dibinātājiem 1717. gadā. Pulkvedis Ward, kā viņu sauca, daudzus gadus kļuva par mēreni pārtikušu zemnieku un centrālo personību Šrūsberijas pašvaldībā. Viņš bija pilsētas pirmais atlasītājs, tās moderators un pārstāvis Vispārējā tiesā. Vēlāk viņš kalpoja kā miertiesnesis Vorčesteras apgabalā un pēdējos deviņus savas dzīves gadus - kā Kopējo pamatu tiesas tiesnesis.

Artemas palāta

Artemess Vords piedzima 1727. gada 26. novembrī, Nahuma un Martas Vordas Šrūsberijas piektais bērns un ceturtais dēls. Pēc Hārvardas absolvēšanas 1748. gadā viņš īsi pasniedza skolu, 1750. gadā apprecējās ar Sāru Trowbridžu un atvēra nelielu vispārējo veikalu. Šrūsberijā. Arī 1750. gadā Vords tika iecelts par vietējo milicijas galveno adjutantu. Nākamajā gadā viņš kļuva par miertiesnesi un drīz tika ievēlēts dažādos pilsētas birojos. 1757. gadā viņš tika izvēlēts par Šrūsberijas pārstāvi Vispārējā tiesā, kuru viņš ieņemtu vēl 15 reizes. 1762. gadā viņš sāka savu 30 gadus ilgo Vorčesteras apgabala kopējās tiesas tiesneša amatu no 1775. gada, viņš bija galvenais tiesnesis.

Pirmo militāro pieredzi Vords piedzīvoja 1755. gadā Francijas un Indijas kara laikā. 1758. gada vasarā viņš piedalījās ekspedīcijā Forts Edvards, kas vainagojās ar britu ģenerāļa Džeimsa Aberkrombija (1706-1781) sakāvi Tikonderogā. Ekspedīcijas laikā viņš tika paaugstināts par pulkvežleitnantu, bet viņam bija maz iespēju pildīt komandēšanas pienākumus.

Kad viņš atgriezās no militārā dienesta Vispārējā tiesā, Vords pievienojās vigu opozīcijai karaliskajam gubernatoram Frensisam Bernāram (1712-1779). Šī opozīcija, kuras priekšgalā bija Džeimss Otiss, jaunākais (1725-1783) un Semjuels Adamss (1722-1803), iezīmēja alianses starp Vārdu un Ādamsu, kas ilga 20 gadus. Vords strādāja komitejā, lai sagatavotu atbildi uz Bernarda pastmarku likuma nemiera ziņojumu. Tā kā viņš atbalstīja patriotu, Bernards 1766. gadā atcēla savu militāro komisiju. Tomēr Vorda stingrā nostāja padarīja viņu populāru vigu vidū, un divus gadus vēlāk ar sava drauga Adamsa palīdzību viņš tika izvēlēts par gubernatora padomi. lojāls Tomass Hačinsons (1711-1780). Viņa ievēlēšanu Bernards uzlika veto. Dažus mēnešus vēlāk Vords bija viens no "krāšņajiem 92", kurš atteicās atcelt Adamsa 1768. gada apļveida vēstuli, kurā iebilda pret nodokļiem bez pārstāvniecības un aicināja kolonistus apvienoties pret Lielbritānijas valdību. 1769. gadā Vords otrreiz tika ievēlēts Padomē, bet gubernators atkal anulēja vēlēšanu rezultātus. Kad nākamajā gadā trešo reizi ievēlēja Vordu ar tikai desmit pretējām balsīm no 125, gubernatora pienākumu izpildītājs Hačinsons piekāpās spiedienam un ļāva kandidēt.

Pateicoties popularitātei kolonistu vidū, Vords tika izvēlēts kalpot pirmajos trīs provinču kongresos un tika atjaunots iepriekšējā milicijas pakāpē, otrais pēc Džededijas Prebles (1707-1784) un pirms Seta Pomerija (1706-1777). Tajā laikā viņš bija 47 gadus vecs, 20 gadus jaunāks par jebkuru no viņa komandieriem. 1775. gada 19. aprīlī, dienā, kad “šāviens bija dzirdams visā pasaulē”, Vords bija slims gultā un cieta no “akmens” - šī stāvokļa viņš traucēja lielāko daļu pieaugušā dzīves. Neskatoties uz to, viņš nākamajā dienā brauca uz Kembridžu, lai vadītu amerikāņu karaspēku, kas aplenca Bostonu, un tur viņš rīkoja pirmo revolūcijas kara padomi. Topošie karavīri vēl nebija oficiāli iekļauti un sarindoti, un disciplīna, algas, krājumi, pārtika, formas tērpi un higiēna bija kritiskas bažas. Turklāt Vords saskārās ar komandēšanas nodaļu. Ģenerālim Džonam Tomasam (1724-1776) Roksberijā bija autonomija, un Konektikutas un Rodas salas spēki nebija neatkarīgi no Vorda pavēles. Maija sākumā aplenkuma līnijas bija tik saspringtas, ka provinces kongress apsprieda atkāpšanos, bet Vords noturējās un spēja saglabāt savus vīrus kopā Bostonas apkārtnē. Kad amerikāņu izlūkdienesti uzzināja, ka briti plāno uzbrukt Bunkera kalnam, Vords deva pavēli šo pozīciju nostiprināt, 1775. gada 17. jūnijā izveidojot posmu cīņai pret Bunkera kalnu. Tomēr vēlāk Džeimss Vorens (1726-1808) un citi kritizēja Vordu par viņa lēnumu, pastiprinot amerikāņu karaspēku šajā kaujā.

1776. gada pavasarī, pēc Džona Adamsa teiktā, lielākā daļa Kontinentālā kongresa delegātu priekšnieka priekšnieka amatā deva priekšroku Vordam. Tomēr nacionālās vienotības labad tika izvēlēts Džordžs Vašingtons-dienvidnieks. Rezultātā Vorda attiecības ar Vašingtonu nekad nebija labas. 22. martā, daļēji sliktas veselības dēļ, Vords atkāpās no amata, lai gan palika līdz brīdim, kad tika atrasts aizstājējs Austrumu departamenta vadītājam. Nākamajā gadā kara teātris pārcēlās prom no Jaunanglijas, un Vorda primārais uzdevums bija Bostonas nocietināšana pret aizdomās turēto britu pretuzbrukumu. 1777. gada 20. martā viņu beidzot nomainīja ģenerālis Viljams Hīts (1737-1814).

Neskatoties uz militārās karjeras beigām un slikto veselību, Vords turpināja strādāt valsts dienestā. 1776. gada maijā viņš vēlreiz tika ievēlēts Gubernatora padomē, kur viņš strādāja nākamos trīs gadus. Lielāko daļu laika viņš bija Padomes prezidents un līdz ar to faktiski Masačūsetsas izpilddirektors. Kad 1780. gada septembrī tika pieņemta jaunā štata konstitūcija, Vords atbalstīja Džeimsu Bovinu (1726–1790) gubernatora amatā pret Džonu Hankoku (1737–1793), ar kuru viņš 1778. gada beigās cīnījās kā Hārvardas pārraugs par mantzini Hankoka iespējamo nepareizo attieksmi pret koledžu. līdzekļus. Tomēr Hankoks vēlēšanās uzvarēja viegli.

Vords tika izvēlēts par delegātu Kontinentālajā kongresā 1780. gada sesijai. Nākamajā gadā viņš tika ievēlēts atkārtoti, un atkal 1782. gadā, bet atteicās veselības dēļ. 1782. gada maijā viņš tika ievēlēts Masačūsetsas namā, kur viņš kalpoja četrus no nākamajiem pieciem gadiem (viņš atteicās no vēlēšanām 1783. gadā), un viņš bija palātas priekšsēdētājs Šeisa sacelšanās laikā 1786. gadā. ieņemot Vorčesteras tiesas galvenā tiesneša amatu, Vords nonāca grūtību vidū. Viņa pūlis no tiesas nama soļiem 1786. gada 5. septembrī ir vispazīstamākais incidents viņa mūžā.

Vords kandidēja uz pirmo kongresu, bet ierindojās trešajā vietā aiz sava vecā klasesbiedra, lojālista Timotija Peina un uzvarētāja pulkveža Džonatana Groita. Otrajā mēģinājumā 1790. gada novembrī Vords uzvarēja Groutu atkārtotās vēlēšanās. Viņš kalpoja gan otrajā, gan trešajā kongresā, neraugoties uz biežajām neērtībām hronisku slimību dēļ. Būdams stingrs federālists, viņš vienmēr atbalstīja prezidenta politiku un šķīrās no sava ilggadējā drauga Samuela Adamsa jautājumā par Francijas un Amerikas attiecībām. 1795. gadā viņš pameta sabiedrisko dzīvi un atgriezās mājās Šrūsberijā, kur nomira 1800. gada 28. oktobrī 73 gadu vecumā.


Kas ir "akmens uzbrukums"? Krupo 02:59, 2004. gada 27. augustā (UTC)

Varbūt žultsakmeņi vai nierakmeņi. Revolucionārā kara laikā viņš cieta no tiem.

Patiesībā Amerikas Universitātes ēkas nosaukums ir Ward Circle Building, tāpēc patiesībā nav pareizi apgalvot, ka ēka ir nosaukta viņa vārdā, bet drīzāk tā ir nosaukta pēc tās atrašanās vietas (palātas aplī). - Iepriekšēju neparakstītu komentāru pievienoja 72.75.122.195 (diskusija) 19:38, 2008. gada 10. janvārī (UTC)

Mana māte ir diezgan daudz pētījusi ģimenes vēsturi. Es likšu viņai nosūtīt man pa e -pastu precīzāku informāciju par šo puisi un redzēt, kā es varu sniegt savu ieguldījumu. Vai kāds cits ir saistīts ar šo puisi? Prieks redzēt, ka viņam ir wiki lapa. Pēdējo reizi pārbaudīju, pirms kāda laika es vienmēr biju saistīts ar lapu, kurā bija norādīts, ka viņa vārds ir autora pseidonīms. Personīgi es jūtos mazliet pievīlusa, ka tik nozīmīgam cilvēkam Amerikas vēsturē ir tik maz pievērsta uzmanība. Ha! Varbūt man vajadzētu uzrakstīt biogrāfiju. vai tādas jau ir ārā? Labi, varbūt man vienkārši vajadzētu pajautāt labajiem cilvēkiem Amerikas Universitātē. - Iepriekšēju neparakstītu komentāru pievienoja 110.164.173.245 (diskusija) 04:50, 2011. gada 23. februārī (UTC)

Nav skaidrs, kāds ir savienojums starp Vordu un sadaļu "Amerikas universitāte" šīs apakšnodaļas apakšā. Iepriekšējā sadaļā ir skaidrs par apli, uz kura atrodas statuja, un par skolas īpašumtiesībām uz zemi. Ja vien starp Ward un Universitāti nevar izveidot īpašu savienojumu, šī apakšiedaļa ir jāsvītro. Jau ir saite uz universitātes galveno rakstu, tāpēc šeit nav jāatkārto informācija. IPBiographer (diskusija) 18:49, 2014. gada 15. novembrī (UTC)

Tiek meklēti šīs ģimenes locekļi. Artemas Ward ir mans 6x vecvectēvs. 2016. gada 3. janvāris

Ward Circle ēka ir pārdēvēta par Kirvina ēku. - Iepriekšējo neparakstīto komentāru pievienoja 147.9.25.10 (diskusija) 21:04, 21 septembrī, 2017 (UTC)

Ko tieši palāta panāca?

Vords apmeklēja kopējās skolas, koledžu sagatavoja privātskolotājs un absolvēja Hārvardas koledžu (1748, B.A. 1751). Tāpat kā viņa tēvs, viņš ieņēma daudzus valsts amatus pilsētas, apgabala un štata līmenī.

Viņš tika iecelts par miertiesnesi 1752. gadā, pārstāvis Koloniālajā Ģenerālajā asamblejā uz daudziem termiņiem un izpildpadomē, pulkvežleitnants provinces armijā Francijas un Indijas karā un oktobrī iecelts par brigādes ģenerāli Masačūsetsas provinces kongresā. 27, 1774. gads.

Tā kā politiskās krīzes izraisīja Amerikas revolūciju, Vords 1775. gada 19. maijā tika iecelts par Masačūsetsas spēku virspavēlnieku, ko Kontinentālais kongress iecēla ģenerālmajoram 1775. gada 17. jūnijā (otrais pēc darba stāža tikai Džordžam Vašingtonam). spēku vadība, kas aplenca Bostonu, līdz Vašingtonas ierašanās Kembridžā 1775. gada 2. jūlijā.

Bunkera kalna kauja notika Vorda vispārējā pavēlniecībā. Dorčesteras augstienes stiprināšana ar lielgabalu, ko ģenerālis Henrijs Nokss atveda no Ticonderoga forta, notika Varda pavēlniecības nozarē 1776. gada martā.

Drīz pēc britu evakuācijas no Bostonas Vords atgriezās civilajā dzīvē, kur kalpoja prasīgos un svarīgos amatos. 1776. un 1777. gadā viņš bija Vorčesteras apgabala kopējo prasību tiesas priekšsēdētājs. Apmēram trīs gadus viņš kalpoja Masačūsetsas Senātā kā Izpildpadomes priekšsēdētājs. Šajā amatā Vords kara laikā (1777-1779) darbojās kā Masačūsetsas izpilddirektors birojā, kas aizstāja vairs neatzīto karalisko gubernatoru. Statuja

No 1780.

Viņš tika ievēlēts par Masačūsetsas nama spīkeru 1786. gadā, un tas padarīja viņa rīcību kā Worcester tiesas miertiesnesi 1786. gada Shays sacelšanās laikā vēl nozīmīgāku. Viņš stājās pretī nemierniekiem uz tiesas nama soļiem, demonstrējot savu tautas ietekmi un cieņu pret tiesiskumu.

1797. gada decembrī Vords noslēdza savu garo tiesneša karjeru un pēdējos gadus pavadīja mierīgā pensijā mājās kopā ar ģimeni. Viņš nomira 1800. gada 28. oktobrī un ir apglabāts Kalnvjū kapsētā Šrūsberijas centrā.


Vispārējā Artemas palātas piemineklis

Masačūsetsas dēls, Hārvardas koledžas absolvents, tiesnesis un likumdevējs, delegējis 1780 un#82111781 kontinentālajā kongresā, trīs karu karavīrs, pirmais patriotu spēku komandieris.

1938. gadā uzcēla Hārvardas absolvents.

Tēmas. Šis vēsturiskais marķiera piemineklis ir iekļauts šajā tēmu sarakstā: Karš, ASV revolucionārs. Nozīmīgs vēsturiskais gads šim ierakstam ir 1781. gads.

Atrašanās vieta. 38 & 56,275 ′ N, 77 & 5,155 ′ W. Markers atrodas Amerikas universitātes parkā Vašingtonā, Kolumbijas apgabalā. Marķieris atrodas Ward Circle ziemeļrietumu un Massachusetts Avenue ziemeļrietumu krustojumā, Ward Circle ziemeļrietumu vidējā daļā. Pieskarieties kartei. Marķieris atrodas šajā pasta adresē vai tās tuvumā: 4401 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington DC 20016, Amerikas Savienotās Valstis. Pieskarieties, lai saņemtu norādes.

Citi tuvumā esošie marķieri. Vēl vismaz 8 citi marķieri atrodas pastaigas attālumā no šī marķiera. Amerikāņu universitāte (kliedziena attālumā no šī marķiera) 11. septembra piemiņas vieta (aptuveni 600 pēdu attālumā, mērot tiešā līnijā) ASV jūras kara flotes bumbu iznīcināšanas skola (aptuveni 600 pēdu attālumā) Džona Flečera Hērsta (aptuveni 600 pēdu attālumā) Battelle memoriālā ēka (aptuveni Korejas ķiršu koki (aptuveni 700 pēdu attālumā) Jeju Dolhareubang (aptuveni 700 pēdu attālumā) Otrā pasaules kara memoriāls (aptuveni 0,2 jūdžu attālumā).

Vairāk par šo pieminekli. Ward Circle tika uzcelta šī pieminekļa turēšanai. No Smitsona Amerikas mākslas muzeja mākslas inventāra kataloga: “Mākslinieks Leonards Krunels savu portretu veidoja pēc Čārlza Vilsona Peale eļļas gleznas. Crunelle par paraugu izmantoja arī militāro apmetni, ko faktiski nēsāja Vords. ”

Skatīt arī. . . Artemas palāta. Wikipedia ieraksts. “Vispār

Šo 1936. gada Leonarda Crunelle statuju atklāja Lūisa Veslija Fika kundze, tiešā Artemas Ward pēctece, un to apmaksāja ar Wards vecmazdēla un#8220 Artemis Ward no 7. paaudzes stipendiju. Hārvardas absolvents.

“General Ward ir garš, plāns un majestātiska izskata, ar noteiktu komandējumu, kas neapšaubāmi izvirzās pa īpaši izveidotu Vašingtonas satiksmes loku. Tas ir interesanti, ņemot vērā, ka lielākā daļa avotu raksturo ģenerāli Vordu kā apaļu un izliektu. Tādējādi bronzas versija ir pretēja. Tomēr īss, resns ģenerālis Vords nedarītu, ja mērķis būtu izveidot ikonu, kas atbilst Artemas Vordam no Septītās paaudzes standartiem, lai pārstāvētu gan ģimeni, gan viņa pēcnācējus. ” —, Rebecca Anne Goetz, Ģenerālis Artemas Ward: aizmirsts revolucionārs, atcerēts un izgudrots


Ģenerālmajoram Artemas palātam

Mana pēdējā vakara vēstule jūs informētu, ka šīs vietas ģenālisti uzskatīja, ka ir bīstami aizkavēt ieņemšanu Dorčesteras kalnos, vismaz viņiem vajadzētu būt mūsu priekšā ienaidniekam, un tāpēc iesaistiet mūs grūtībās, kuras mums nevajadzētu zināt no kā atbrīvoties - no šī viedokļa viņi bija spiesti pieņemt no pārliecības, patiesībā gandrīz noteiktas zināšanas, par to, ka ienaidnieki šādi novērtē mūsu dizainu.

Jums jāizvēlas daži labi pulki, kurus doties rītā pēc amata ieņemšanas, ģenerāļa Tomasa pavēlniecībā, var tikt pasūtīts to vīriešu skaits, kurus jūs uzskatāt par vajadzīgiem šim atvieglojumam - es domāju, ka no diviem līdz trim tūkstošiem, pietiktu ar apstākļiem. Es nosūtīšu jūs no diviem pulkiem, lai otrdienas agrā rītā būtu Roksberijā, lai stiprinātu jūsu līnijas, un es nosūtīšu jūs uz rītvakara divām Rifflemen kompānijām, kuras kopā ar trim tagad varētu būt daļa no palīdzības ar Genlu Tomasu.1 šīs piecas kompānijas var nodot kapteiņa Hjū Stīvensona pārraudzībā, pakļautībā pastā (Dorčestera) komandējošajam virsniekam. viņi, manuprāt, varēs ievainot ienaidnieku 2 viņu martā no viņu laivām un ampluā Landgā.

Ja iespējams, ir jāizmet akls gar cēloni, bet otrs darbs ir paredzēts īpaši Dorčesteras pusē, jo tas atrodas vistuvāk ienaidnieka ieročiem un ir visvairāk pakļauts. 3 Mēs aprēķinājām, ka 800 vīrieši darīs visu Causey ar lielu vieglumu naktī, ja purvs atkal nav kļuvis slikts, lai strādātu, un paisums un plūdmaiņa nedod lielu pārtraukumu viņus, fasādes, lustras un ampkas savā vietā es nezinu - es domāju, ka 750 vīriešu (darba grupa rokās nes rokas) ir pietiekami, lai segtu pusi. tie tiks ievietoti Nuke-Hill. uz mazā kalniņa otrā kalna priekšā, skatoties uz Bostonas līci - un netālu no vietas pretī pilij. Uzraudzības vietas, kas jāglabā starp pusēm, un dažas no aizmugures, skatoties uz Squantum.

Tā kā man ir ļoti augsts viedoklis par aizstāvību, ko var veikt ar muciņām no jebkura no kalniem, es varētu vēlēties, lai jums tiktu nosūtīts numurs - iespējams, viena muca būtu labāka nekā to sasaistīšana, jo tā būtu mazāk atbildīga. negadījumiem - stīpām vajadzētu būt labi naildām, pretējā gadījumā tās drīz lidos, un mucas nokrīt gabalos.

Jums jārūpējas par to, lai milicija saņemtu nepieciešamo paziņojumu, kas atbilst plānam ar ģenerāli Tomasu. pieminējiet jums, ka jūs nokārtosit jautājumus ar amatpersonām kopā ar jums, jo tas, ko esmu dzirdējis, drīzāk ir paredzēts, lai vispārīgi nodotu manas idejas, nevis vēlas, lai tās tiktu stingri ievērotas. Es esmu ar cieņu & ampca Sir Yr Most Obedt Servt

1. Skatīt Vispārējos rīkojumus šajā datumā. Palīdzības spēkiem bija jāaizsargā Dorčesteras kakla jaunās līnijas pret jebkādiem uzbrukumiem, ko briti varētu veikt pret viņiem no Bostonas.

2. GW rokrakstā ierakstīja “gald”, bet virs vārda novietoja tildi, norādot, ka pareizrakstība ir jālabo.

3. Rufuss Putnams ierosināja šīs žalūzijas konstrukciju savā 1776. gada 11. februāra vēstulē GW.

4. GW manuskriptā nejauši uzrakstīja “tade”, nevis “plūdmaiņu”. No purviem tika nogriezta kūdra, ko izmantoja nocietinājumu celtniecībai un citiem darbiem. 1776. gada 24. februārī Roberts Hansons Harisons rakstīja Vordam: “Viņa ekselence man pavēlēja jūs informēt, ka Genls [Izraēla] Putnams viņam teica, ka viņš šodien bija sarīkojis purva kūdras zāģēšanu un ka viņi to bija paveikuši ar ļoti nelielām grūtībām. plūdmaiņas bija plūdušas - to viņš vēlas, lai jūs informētu Kolo. [Rufus] Putnam paziņo un paziņo viņam, ka, ja viņš atklās, ka var tikt izdarīts, ka viņam labāk jāizmanto kūdra, cik ātri vien to var nogriezt. ”(MHi : Ward Papers).

5. “Ap darbiem tika novietotas ar zemi piepildītas mucu rindas,” Viljams Hīts saka savos memuāros. "Viņi parādīja tikai izskatu, kas stiprina darbus, bet patiesais dizains bija tāds, ka gadījumā, ja ienaidnieks uzbrūk, viņi tos ir nogāzuši no kalna. Viņi būtu nolaidušies ar tādu pieaugošu ātrumu, kā tas, iespējams, būtu uzmācis uzbrucējus vislielākajā apjukumā un būtu nogalinājis un ievainojis lielu skaitu cilvēku. Šo projektu Bostonas tirgotājs Viljams Deiviss ierosināja mūsu ģenerālim [Hītam], kurš to nekavējoties paziņoja virspavēlniekam, kurš to ļoti apstiprināja, tāpat kā visi pārējie virsnieki ”(Vilsons, Hīta memuāri) apraksts sākas Rufuss Rokvels Vilsons, red. Hīta memuāri par Amerikas karu. 1798. Atkārtota izdrukāšana. Ņujorka, 1904. apraksts beidzas, 49 skat. arī Dandridža, Šeferstaunas apraksts sākas Danske Dandridge. Historic Shepherdstown. Charlottesville, Va., 1910. apraksts beidzas , 129).

6. 3. marta vakarā Roberts Hansons Harisons rakstīja Vordam: “Viņa ekselence man pavēl jums paziņot, ka, ja šovakar austrumu puses vējš rītdien pakāpienam būtu diezgan liels, un tur varbūtība, ka tā turpināsies jebkurā laikā, ka viņš negribēs, lai jūs piezvanītu milicijai, kamēr jūs no viņa neko vairāk nedzirdat - jo viņu ieaicināšana ir atkarīga no plūdmaiņas apstākļiem rīt jums būs iespēja veidot pareizu spriedumu no parādīšanās - Viņa ekselence vēlas, lai jūs būtu īpaši uzmanīgs pret ienaidnieka kustībām un izmantosit visus iespējamos piesardzības pasākumus, lai atklātu, kur viņiem ir iecere pārņemt Dorčesteras augstumus. , kā viņš nekādā gadījumā neliktu viņiem to paveikt ”(MHi: Ward Papers).


No ģenerālmajora Artemas palātas

Trīspadsmitajā momentā vakarā es pavēlēju ieņemt amatu Longailendā pieci simti vīru ar pienācīgiem virsniekiem, vilciena atdalīšanu ar trīspadsmit collu javu, divus astoņpadsmit mārciņas un dažus nelielus lielgabalus. lai kaitinātu ienaidnieka kuģus, nepieciešamie darbi tika izmesti naktī, un nākamajā rītā mūsu lielgabals un java sāka spēlēt pret pirātiem, kas drīz vien visus izdzina no ostas. 2 Flote sastāvēja no trīspadsmit no piecdesmit ieročiem, vairākiem mazākiem kara kuģiem un dažiem transportiem ar augstieniešiem uz kuģa, cik tuvu mēs spējām spriest, uz transporta līdzekļiem atradās aptuveni astoņi simti karavīru. Dodoties ceļā, viņi uzspridzināja Gaismas namu un pēc tam ar savu floti nolaida jūrā. Es domāju, ka ir iespējams, ka viņi atstās dažas fregates kruīzam līcī.

Vairākiem kolonijas karaspēkiem un milicijai tajā pašā naktī Petiksa salā vajadzēja izmest bateriju un Nantasket galvu, 3 bet kādu neparedzētu šķēršļu dēļ viņi savlaicīgi nesagatavoja savu lielgabalu, tomēr ienaidniekam deva vairākus nošauti, kad kuģi izgāja cauri Lamanšam. Mūsu šāviens nogrieza dažus viņu pagalmus un takelāžas, un vairāki iegāja kuģu sānos, bet čaulas no javas viņus visvairāk biedēja, viņi bez jebkādas ietekmes atdeva dažus šāvienus no Commodore's Ship un nokļuva burā ar visu ekspedīciju.

Es esmu ierosinājis Vispārējai tiesai noenkurot mānekļa kuģi, kur atradās karavīrs, ar plašu piekariņu, lai piesaistītu transportu, kas varētu nākt šādā veidā.

Vēl nav ieradies ne Paymaster, ne nauda šeit izvietotajiem karaspēkiem, un šī kavēšanās ir radījusi lielas grūtības, jo vīriešiem, par kuriem esmu centies aizņemties Vispārējās tiesas naudu, bet nav izdevies, tagad ir jāmaksā vairāk nekā trīs mēneši, Valsts kase ir gandrīz izsmelta lielo prasību dēļ. Es esmu jūsu izcilības paklausīgais pazemīgais kalps

P.S. Vairāki invalīdi, kas pieder soļojošajiem pulkiem, ir pieteikušies, lai mani nodod citos pulkos, jo viņi nevarēja doties gājienā, bet es nedomāju, ka es būtu pilnvarots izpildīt viņu lūgumu. Esmu izrakstījis trīs vai četrus kontinentam, kuriem, iespējams, nebija nekāda labuma, bet tikai apgrūtinājums.

P.S. 17. jūnijs. Es tikko saņēmu informāciju, ka kontinentālie privātpersonas ir paņēmuši un ieveduši Nantasket šajā ostā kuģi un brigu no Glāzgovas ar divsimt desmit augstienes karavīriem uz kuģa ar kuģa bagāžu un sešus karotājus. Privātpersonas kādu laiku pirms viņas trieciena mums bija ievainoti četri vīrieši, ienaidniekam tika nogalināti trīs ierindnieki un majors, bet astoņi vai desmit vīrieši tika ievainoti. Ieslodzītie ierodas pilsētā, starp kuriem ir pulkvedis. Jebkuru papildu informāciju, kas var būt svarīga, nosūtīšu, tiklīdz es to uzzināšu

1. "Mani pavēl viņa ekscija," Roberts Hansons Harisons rakstīja Ward 10. jūnijā, "lūgt jūs nekavējoties nosūtīt uz šo vietu vilciena leitnants [Tomass] Mašins, ja viņš nepieder nevienai no Artilly kompānijām, Bostonā - ja viņš to nedarīs, viņš ieradīsies ar visu iespējamo nosūtīšanu ”(DLC: GW).

2. Pulkvedis Asa Whitcomb spēki ieņēma pozīciju Longailendā ar skatu uz Nantasket Road, kas ir galvenais stiprinājums Bostonas ārējā ostā.

3. No Peddocks salas un Nantasket Head paveras arī skats uz Nantasket Road.

4. Britu transportu Džordžu un Annabellu 16. jūnijā Bostonas ostā sagūstīja seši amerikāņu bruņoti kuģi, kuriem palīdzēja Masačūsetsas šaujamieroču apkalpe Point Alderton ostas dienvidu pusē. Pilnu šīs iesaistīšanās pārskatu skatiet Klarkā, Džordža Vašingtonas jūras kara flotes aprakstā sākas Viljams Bels Klārks. Džordža Vašingtonas flote ir viņa ekselences flotes pārskats Jaunanglijas ūdeņos. Batonrūža, La., 1960. apraksts beidzas, 160. – 64. Katrā transportā atradās karaspēka rota no 71. pēdu pulka 2. bataljona (Freizera augstienieši). Majors Menzijs, kurš tika nogalināts uz Džordža klāja, 18. jūnijā tika apbedīts Bostonā ar militāru apbalvojumu (sk. William Gordon, GW, 19. – 20. Jūnijs, un 9. piezīme).

Uz Džordža klāja tika notverts parlamenta deputāts un 71. pulka 2. bataljona pulkvežleitnants Arčibalds Kempbels (1739–1791). Lai uzzinātu par viņa iesaistīšanos, skatiet viņa vēstuli Viljamam Hovam 1776. gada 19. jūnijā Klarkā un Morganā, Jūras dokumentu apraksts sākas Viljams Bels Klārks un citi, red. Amerikas revolūcijas jūras dokumenti. 12 sēj. līdz šim. Vašingtona, DC, 1964–. apraksts beidzas, 5: 619–21. Kempbels, kurš bija cienījams militārais inženieris, 1757. gadā ienāca Lielbritānijas armijā kā leitnants 63. pēdu pulkā un divus gadus vēlāk kļuva par Karalisko inženieru apakšinženieri. 1763. gadā paaugstināts par ārkārtas inženieri ar kapteiņa-leitnanta pakāpi, Kempbels 1768. gadā tika atdalīts no armijas, lai kalpotu par galveno inženieri Austrumindijas kompānijā Bengālijā. 1773. gadā viņš atgriezās Anglijā ar lielu laimi, ko nākamajā gadā izmantoja, lai no Stirlingas birģiem nodrošinātu vietu parlamentā. 1775. gada novembrī Kempbels tika iecelts komandēt Simona Freizera jaunā augstienes pulka 2. bataljonu, un 1776. gada 29. aprīlī viņš kopā ar pulku kuģoja no Grīnokas, Skotijas. Lai gan Kempbels tika atbrīvots no cietuma drīz pēc viņa sagrābšanas Bostonā, viņš tika apmainīts tikai 1778. gada maijā. 1778. gada oktobrī ģenerālis Henrijs Klintons iecēla viņu vadīt ekspedīciju pret Savannu. Pēc pilsētas krišanas 1779. gada janvārī Kempbels atgriezās Anglijā, kur tika paaugstināts par pulkvedi. Viņš kalpoja par Jamaikas gubernatora leitnantu no 1781. līdz 1782. gadam un par kolonijas gubernatoru no 1782. līdz 1784. gadam. 1785. gadā viņš tika iecelts bruņinieku kārtā un padarīts par Madrasas gubernatoru.


Dzimis ģenerālis Artemas Vards

Šajā vēstures dienā, 1727. gada 26. novembrī, piedzimst ģenerālis Artemas Vards. Artemas Vords bija ievērojama persona Masačūsetsas politikā Amerikas revolūcijas laikā un pēc tās. Vords ir dzimis Šrūsberijā, Masačūsetsā, un 1748. gadā absolvējis Hārvardu. Viņš atvēra universālveikalu Šrūsberijā 1750. gadā, bet 1751. gadā, 24 gadu vecumā, uzsāka politikas dzīvi. Ward's pirmais valdības darbs bija Vusteras apgabala pilsētas vērtētāja. Viņš kļuva par miertiesnesi 1752. gadā un sāka pirmo no daudziem kalpošanas gadiem, būdams pārstāvis Kolonijas Ģenerālajā asamblejā.

1755. gadā Francijas un Indijas kara laikā Vords kļuva par Vorčesteras apgabala milicijas majoru. Tomēr aktīvo militāro dienestu viņš ieraudzīja tikai divus gadus vēlāk, kad briti uzbruka franču valdītajam Ticonderoga cietoksnim. 1772. gadā Vords kļuva par Kopējo pamatu tiesas tiesnesi - šo amatu viņš ieņemtu gadu desmitiem ilgi. Ģenerālajā asamblejā viņš kalpoja līdzās tādām personībām kā Džeimss Otiss, Džons Hankoks un Semjuels Adamss. Vords kļuva tik plaši pazīstams, ka Asamblejā uzstājās pret britu politiku, ka gubernators Frensiss Bernards atņēma viņa militāro komisiju un anulēja vēlēšanu rezultātus no Vorčesteras apgabala 1768. gadā, lai nepieļautu, ka Vords piedalās Asamblejā.

As tensions with England increased, the entire 3rd Regiment of Worcester County resigned from its position under British command and went to Shrewsbury, where they informed Col. Ward that they were now in his service. After Governor Bernard dissolved the Assembly in October, 1774, the cities of Massachusetts set up a new government under the "Committee of Safety," placing Ward as General over the whole colony’s militia.

Ward’s first job as general was to get the British out of Boston. He organized the defenses on Bunker Hill and at the Siege of Boston. When the newly appointed General George Washington arrived, Ward helped integrate the Massachusetts militia into the Continental Army. Ward was made a Major General, second in command of the Continental Army only to George Washington. General Ward remained in command of the Eastern Department after the British left Boston and held this position until March 20, 1777, when he resigned for health reasons.

Ward continued to serve as a judge during and after the war. As President of the Executive Council, he ran the government of Massachusetts for three years during the war. After this, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress for a year and in the Massachusetts House of Representatives for six years, including one term as Speaker of the House in 1786. While concurrently serving as Speaker of the House and as a Justice of the Peace, Ward faced down rebels on the steps of the Worcester County Courthouse during Shay’s Rebellion, a rebellion over taxes and government policies. Ward served two terms as a Federalist member of the US House of Representatives when the government under the new Constitution was formed.

Artemas Ward finally retired as a judge and from a long life of public service in December, 1797, at the age of 70. He passed away on October 28, 1800 and was buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Shrewsbury. His legacy includes several accomplished authors and the well preserved Artemas Ward House, which is now owned and managed by Harvard University.

National Society Sons of the American Revolution

"I often note with equal pleasure that God gave this one connected country to one united people — a people descended from the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs, who by their joint counsels, arms, and efforts, fighting side by side through a long bloody war, have nobly established general liberty and independence."
John Jay (1787)

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Prelude to revolution [ edit | rediģēt avotu]

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned masveidā from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.


Gen. Artemas Ward

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. President John Adams described him as ". universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country." He was considered an effective political leader.

Artemas was born at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 to Nahum (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward. He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton, Massachusetts. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760) and Maria (1764).

The next year, 1751, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County. This was the first of many public offices he was to fill. Artemas was elected a justice of the peace in 1752 and also served the first of his many terms in the Massachusetts Bay Colony's assembly, or "general court."

In 1755 the militia was restructured for the war, and Artemas Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which mainly came from Worcester County. They served as garrison forces along the frontier in western Massachusetts. This duty called him at intervals between 1755 and 1757, and alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was made the colonel of the 3rd Regiment or the militia of Middlesex and "Worchester" Counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to Fort Ticonderoga. Ward himself was sidelined during the battle by an "attack of the stone."

By 1762 Ward had completely returned to Shrewsbury and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court he was placed on the taxation committee along with Samuel Adams and John Hancock. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Colonel Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia.

Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebels followed the British back to Boston and started the siege of the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed, but later moved his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments both named him head of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived in May, and in June Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott. While General Ward received national recognition for the heroic stand made that day, his principal contribution was a failure to supply enough ammunition to hold the position.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating a Continental Army. On June 16 they named Artemas Ward a major general, and second in command to George Washington. Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department on April 4, 1776. He held that post until March 20, 1777, when his health forced his resignation from the army.

Even during his military service, Artemas served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. He was President of the state's Executive Council from 1777�, which effectively made him the governor before the 1780 ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives for each year from 1779 through 1785. He also served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781. Ward was the Speaker of the Massachusetts House in 1785. He was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.

Artemas died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800, and is buried with Sarah in Mountain View Cemetery. His great-grandson, Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia (published in 1911).

Artemas's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska Avenue and Massachusetts Avenue in Northwest Washington, D.C.. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Artemas Ward.

The great-grandson of Artemas Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury. Harvard’s initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was completed in 1938. Although there is no pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD, 1727-1800, SON OF MASSACHUSETTS, GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE, JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR, DELEGATE 1780-1781 TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, SOLDIER OF THREE WARS, FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University named the home of the American University School of Public Affairs, being the closest building at the time to Ward Circle in honor of Artemas Ward.

WARD, Artemas, soldier, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, in 1727 died there, 28 October, 1800. He was graduated at Harvard in 1748, entered public life at an early age as a representative to the general assembly, and was afterward chosen to the executive council. In 1752 he was a justice of the peace in his native town. In 1755 he served as major in Colonel Abraham Williams's regiment, and in 1758 he was major in the one that was commanded by William Williams. He accompanied the expedition under Gem James Abercrombie against the French and Indians, attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and succeeded to the command of the 3d regiment. Afterward he represented his native town in the legislature, where he took an active part in the controversies between the colonial governors and the house of representatives and was one of the regularly chosen members that were displaced by the "mandamus councillors" in 1774. On 27 October, 1774, he was appointed a brigadier-general by the Provincial congress of Massachusetts, to which he was a delegate, and on 19 May, 1775, he was made commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts forces. He was in nominal command at the battle of Bunker Hill, though he remained at headquarters in Cambridge and had no share in determining the events of that day. On 17 June he was appointed by the Continental congress first on the list of major-generals, and he was in command of the forces besieging Boston until the arrival of General Washington, after which he was second in command, being stationed with the right wing on Rexbury heights. In consequence of impaired health he resigned his commission in April, 1776, but at the request of General Washington he continued to act until the end of May. He was elected chief justice of the court of common pleas of Worcester county in 1776, was president of the Massachusetts executive council in 1777, and a member of the legislature for sixteen years, serving as speaker in 1785. In 1779 he was appointed a delegate to the Continental congress, but, owing to failing health, did not take his seat. Being afterward elected to congress as a Federalist, he served from 4 October, 1791, till 3 March, 1795. He possessed integrity and unyielding principles, and his judicial conduct, especially during Shays's rebellion in 1786, was highly commended.--His son, Artemas, jurist, born in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 9 January, 1762 died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 October, 1847, was graduated at Harvard in 1783, studied law. was admitted to the bar, and practised in Shrewsbury until 1809, when he removed to Boston. He served in the legislature, was a member of the council, and was elected to the 13th congress as a peace candidate, serving from 24 May, 1813, till 3 March, 1817. From 1.820 till 1839 he was chief justice of the court of common pleas. Harvard gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1842.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

SEE THIS ALSO: http://www.masshist.org/findingaids/doc.cfm?fa=fa0255 Adde by Elwin Nickerson II about my ancestor -See Citations Below- ARTEMAS WARD FIRST COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 274. ARTEMUS WARD, born November 26, 1727, in Shrewsbury, Mass., died October 28, 1800, in Shrewsbury. He married July 31, 1750, in Groton, Mass., SARAH TROWBRIDGE, born December 3, 1724, in Groton, died December 13, 1788, in Shrewsbury, daughter of the Reverend Caleb and Hannah (Walter) Trowbridge and of direct maternal descent from Increase Mather and John Cotton. This great-grandson of William Ward of Sudbury became his most famous descendant, taking an active part on the patriot side in the decade preceding the Revolution and serving as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary forces. His career is fully in the companion volume to this work, his biography, "The Life of Artemas Ward." His birthplace was the house that later achieved local fame as the Baldwin Tavern (see reference under his father, Nahum Ward). He graduated from Harvard College, B.A., 1748, M.A., 1751, and early became prominent in his community, holding numerous town offices. In 1757 he was elected for the first of many terms as Shrewbury's representative in the General Court. The following year he was commissioned as major in William Williams's regiment, raised for the Ticonderoga campaign against the French, winning promotion to lieutenant-colonel, and upon his return being appointed colonel of his militia regiment. In 1762 he was made a judge of the Court of Common Pleas. During these first years following his marriage he lived the "Yellow House," or "Old Sumner House," its site a few feet to the south of the present Sumner House. In 1763 he bought the now famous old "Artemas Ward House" from his brother Elisha and made it his home thenceforth. His activity on the patriot side of the political controversy with England commenced with the Stamp Act agitation and was speedily followed by Governor Bernard's revocation of his commission as colonel-- for which Ward returned his "compliments to the Governor," saying that he considered himself "twice honored, but more in being superseded, than in having been commissioned," and that he thanked him for the letter of dismissal . "since the motive that dictated it is evidence that I am, what he is not, a friend of my country." Two years later (1768) he was elected to the Council in a contest with Lieutenant-Governor Hutchinson, but was promptly vetoed by Bernard. Hutchinson's letter to ex-Governor Pownall, one of several on the subject, describes Ward as "a very sulky fellow, who I thought I could bring over by giving him a commission in the provincial forces after you left the government, but I was mistaken." Ward was elected again in 1769 and again vetoed. On his third election in 1770 he was accepted. He had been marked for slaughter a third time, but Hutchinson (then acting-governor) decided to accept him for fear that a new refusal would "increase the bad spirit in the House and through the province." He was prominent in the Worcester County conventions of 1774, which declared that Massachusetts owed no obedience to the English Parliament, closed the courts, and planned measures in the event of "an invasion, or danger of an invasion" of the county by English troops. He was a delegate to both provincial congresses called to succeed the General Court and was by both named as Second General Officer to command the militia in the event of its being called out by the newly formed Committee of Safety. His old militia regiment meantime reelected him colonel. With the province aroused to this degree, the first overt act meant civil war. This came with the firing at Lexington and the fight at Concord Bridge.

General Ward was ill in bed when the express rider reached Shrewsbury with news of the clash with the British troops, but the next morning at daybreak he was on his way to join the militiamen who had driven the redcoats back to Boston and encamped around the town. So developed the most important and most critical period of General Ward's life. As Jedediah Preble, First General Officer, did not act upon his election, Ward assumed the chief command of the forces surrounding Boston, both those of Massachusetts and those that came in from other New England states. With no rank except that accorded by an informal provincial congress, with no authority to enlist men, without adequate supplies, he took the dangerous post of head of an armed rebellion against one of the world's greatest powers. There was, quite naturally under the circumstances, a good deal of laxity and disorder in the camps, and much restlessness among the men who had left their farms and families at a moment's notice--ready to fight but totally unprepared for a protracted siege and bedeviled by half-patriots subtly poisoning minds and creating dissensions. The conditions stimulated a flood a criticism. Ward was considered overlenient to offenders, and it was charged that he held the reins too loosely. His peculiarly constituted army nevertheless achieved its purpose--it protected the province from the English troops by keeping the province from the English troops by keeping them besieged within the town. Other men were urged for the command, but "both friend and enemy among the leaders of Massachusetts realized that to put another in his place might overnight destroy the province." (This quotation and those following in this brief sketch of General Ward are from "The Life of Artemas Ward, the first Commander-in-Chief of the American Revolution). Ward indeed "filled his most difficult post with so substantial a degree of dexterity that even his most bitter detractor--James Warren of Plymouth--feared the result of making a change and . testified 'we dare not supersede him here.'" Ward was at that time a man of forty-seven years of medium height clean shaven, of prominent features and somewhat corpulent. One may picture him "dressed in the manner of the times--hair in a powdered wig a long coat with silver buttons a figured neckcloth surmounting a ruffled shirt a long waistcoat with big pockets knee-breeches, and riding-boots. A 'God-fearing' man, strongly believing in and living up to the religion he professed quiet, thoughtful, and rather overstern in demeanor somewhat slow in speech and with a biblical turn to his conversation inflexible in his ideas, and fully convinced that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the land most approved by Providence, and that those of Massachusetts were the Chosen People." The first weeks of the War of the Revolution were punctuated by many alarms, culminating with the third week of June in well authenticated reports that the reenforced English army had determined to raise the siege. To prevent this movement the Committee of Safety made its session of June 15 historic by passing a resolution recommending the Council of War to seize "Bunker's Hill" and suggesting that "some one hill or hills on Dorchester Neck be likewise secured"--those two positions commanding the peninsulas to the north and south of the peninsula of Boston. All histories prior to "The Life of Artemas Ward" have it "that the result of the action of the council of war on this resolution of the Committee of Safety was Ward's order to fortify Bunker Hill--and the resolution and order have been variously interpreted: as a step of almost blind recklessness, a desperate hazard, occasioned by the urgent necessity to do something to check the British plans to raise the siege as a move to offset the British intention to take Dorchester Neck as an act of defiance calculated to bring on a general engagement as the first step in the contemplated expulsion of the English from Boston. "But the determination at which the council of war of June 15 actually arrived was of a character much bolder--no less than a sudden tightening of the lines around the British forces by the simultaneous fortification of both Bunker Hill and Dorchester Neck."

The Dorchester Neck project was set aside because General Thomas, in command of the right wing, did not feel that his division was strong enough to defend such a possession, but on the following day Ward issued his orders for the seizure and fortification of Bunker Hill. Then followed the famous "Battle of Bunker Hill"--the English troops winning the position but at such heavy cost that their generals forthwith renounced all plans for breaking through the American lines. Thus was the Siege of Boston maintained under Ward until the arrival on July 2 of George Washington of Virginia, elected Commander-in-Chief by the Continental Congress in the well-founded hope of uniting the colonies in a common cause against the English government. On Washington's assumption of the chief post, Ward accepted the command of the right wing, with headquarters at Roxbury. Eight months later his division carried through his long cherished object--the seizure and fortification of Dorchester Peninsula. This compelled the evacuation of Boston by the British--who never again, except as prisoners of war, set foot within the present boundaries of Massachusetts. In the following month Washington marched for New York, and Ward took command of the Eastern Department with headquarters in Boston, remaining in that post until March 20, 1777, on the repeated requests of the Continental Congress and Washington, despite serious ill health. Following his resignation, he was active as a state executive: much of the time as president of the Executive Council on a secret committee on Tory movements as president of the Court of Inquiry on the first Rhode Island expedition as president of the Committee of Investigation of the failure of the Penobscot expedition, etc. In 1779 he was elected to the Continental Congress for the year 1780 and became a member of the Continental Board of War. He was reelected for 1781 and 1782, but was compelled to decline the third term because of ill health. His most important service was with Samuel Adams and Nathaniel Gorham on the committee to check the unrest in Hampshire County fomented by Tory agitators. He was again in the General Court as Speaker of the House during the says of Shays' Rebellion. In his other role as a chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, his determined stand against the insurgents in front of the Worcester courthouse is one of the most dramatic incidents in the history of the county. He was a representative in the second and third United States Congresses, aligning with the federalists and supporting many Washington policies despite the fact that he and Washington never liked each other. "By the summer of 1797 General Ward had begun to feel that his strength was unequal to his judicial duties. On June 12, writing to his daughter Maria and her husband, Dr. Ebenezer Tracy, he says: 'the lawyers in the general court are endeavoring to demolish the Courts of Common Pleas in this Commonwealth & to establish a circuit court in lieu thereof, and it is probable they will effect it. It don't affect me much for I shall soon leave that Court and confine myself at home. I am old & infirm, it is time for me to quit the theatre of action, and while I remain here live a domestic life.' "He sat in court for the last time during the session of December, 1797, and soon after terminated his long career as a judge." He spent the remaining two years of his life in quiet retirement. "His letters show him, in his old age, as in his younger years, full of kindly love for his children and the members of their families--condoling with them in their afflictions, and rejoicing in their happiness, always keeping in the foreground the God he had served so conscientiously all his life, and inculcating the same reliance in, and acceptance of, divine decrees. For himself, he was expecting the end and praying that he might be 'prepared.'"

He died on October 28, 1800. "A long procession of carriages formed his funeral cortege and an impressive address marked the last rites. "Thus closed the career of Artemas Ward, one of the worthiest of Massachusetts' many noble sons. He had played a prominent part in the generation which founded the great republic of the United States. He had stood in the forefront of revolution when the challenge was thrown down to the might of the British Empire, and had held equally resolute against the wrath of compatriots when it ran counter to the best interests of the state or nation. His had been a character of strength and stability which could be swayed neither by favor nor by fear and a life of continuous industry from youth to old age. A character and a life well deserving a high place in the annals of Massachusetts."

The most important recent memorials to General Ward are cited in the Introduction to this volume. The "Artemas Ward House," Shrewsbury, Mass., his home for thirty-seven years, is open to the public every week-day during the summer months. It is a prominent feature of the state road between Boston and Worcester. Its historical associations and it's store of early colonial and revolutionary relics attract many visitors--students, historical writers, and others, in addition to members of the family. His manuscript letters and orders, etc., are widely held. The largest collection is in the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, donated by Artemas Ward, 2722, and containing additions from the collections of Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340 Roxa Sprague (Dix) Southard, daughter of 2731 Sarah Elizabeth (Dix) Fisher, 2732 Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 Josephine Lewis Danforth and Antoinette (Danforth) Smith, 4368 and 4369 and Gertrude Carruth (Washburn) Weeks, daughter of 4348. Also in the Massachusetts Historical Society are his commission as Massachusetts Commander-in-Chief, presented by Catherine Maria (Ward) Barrell, 1340, and reproduced in "The Life of Artemas Ward" his Order Book, donated by Rebuke Langdon (Prince) Lamson, 2738 his sword, the gift of Charles (Carlos) Thomas Atherton Ward, 4418 his own copy of the diary he kept during the Ticonderoga Expedition of 1758, donated by Florence Grosvenor Ward, 4403 and some additional letters bound on the Heath, Pickering, and Thomas MSS. A second important group of manuscripts is in the Massachusetts Archives, Boston. There are two contemporary portraits of General Ward. The better known, that by Charles Willson Peale, in 1794 or 1795, hangs in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Copies of it are in the Old and New State Houses, Boston the Artemas Ward Annex to the Howe Memorial Library, Shrewsbury the Courthouse, Worcester, Mass. and the homes of Artemas Ward, 2722, Judge Henry Galbraith Ward, 2723, and Agnes (Ward) White, 4385. Mrs. White's copy is a free rendering by Thomas Sully. The photogravure opposite page 106 is, as noted, from the Independence Hall original. The second portrait, by Raphaelle Peale in 1795, is in the Artemas Ward House. A copy is owned by Mrs. C. A. Page (page 156, footnote). There are also numerous heirlooms of General Ward, other than letters, owned by descendants. The gavel that he used as Speaker of the Massachusetts House is in the Old State House, Boston, and the Shrewsbury Congregational Church cherishes the silver communion cups that he gave it in 1769.

THE PRECEDING NUMBERS AND REFERENCES TO PAGES RELATE TO THE ORIGINAL WILLIAM WARD GENEALOGY PUBLISHED IN 1925.

GEDCOM Piezīme

!Service: was an American Revolutionary War commander under George Washington, the first commander-in-chief of the American Revolution.

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts In office March 4, 1791 – March 3, 1795

Artemas Ward (November 26, 1727 – October 28, 1800) was an American major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts. He was considered an effective political leader, President John Adams describing him as "universally esteemed, beloved and confided in by his army and his country."

Early life and career Artemas Ward was born at Shrewsbury in the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1727 to Nahum Ward (1684�) and Martha (Howe) Ward.He was the sixth of seven children. His father had broad and successful career interests as a sea captain, merchant, land developer, farmer, lawyer and jurist. As a child he attended the common schools and shared a tutor with his brothers and sisters. He graduated from Harvard in 1748 and taught there briefly.

On July 31, 1750, he married Sarah Trowbridge (December 3, 1724 – December 13, 1788), the daughter of Reverend Caleb Trowbridge and Hannah Trowbridge of Groton. The young couple returned to Shrewsbury where Artemas opened a general store. In the next fifteen years they would have eight children: Ithamar in 1752, Nahum (1754), Sara (1756), Thomas (1758), Artemas Jr. (1762), Henry Dana (1768), Martha (1760), and Maria (1764).

In 1751, at age 23 or 24, he was named a township assessor for Worcester County, the first of many public offices he was to fill.In 1752 he was elected a justice of the peace and to the first of many terms in the Massachusetts provincial assembly, or "general court."

French and Indian War (1754�) In 1755 the Massachusetts militia was restructured for the war Ward was made a major in the 3rd Regiment which drew its company mainly from Worcester County. The 3rd primarily served as a garrison force along the frontier in western Massachusetts. Between 1755 and 1757 Ward was called to active duty at intervals that alternated with his attendance at the General Court. In 1757 he was promoted to regimental colonel of the 3rd Regiment of the militias of Middlesex and Worcester counties. In 1758 the regiment marched with Abercrombie's force to sortie on Fort Ticonderoga, but Ward was sidelined during the campaign by an "attack of the stone."

Between the wars By 1762, Ward returned to Shrewsbury permanently and was named to the Court of Common Pleas. In the General Court (the provincial assembly) he, with Samuel Adams and John Hancock, was appointed to the taxation committee. On the floor, he was second only to James Otis in speaking out against the acts of parliament in London. His prominence in these debates prompted the Royal Governor Francis Bernard to revoke his military commission in 1767. At the next election in 1768, Bernard voided the election results for Worcester and banned Ward from the assembly, but this didn't silence him.

In the growing sentiment favoring rebellion, the 3rd Regiment resigned en masse from British service on October 3, 1774. They then marched on Shrewsbury to inform Ward that they had unanimously elected him their leader. Later that month the governor abolished the assembly. The towns of Massachusetts responded by setting up a colony-wide Committee of Safety. One of the first actions of the Committee was to name Ward as general and commander-in-chief of the colony's militia

American Revolution (1775�) Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebel (colonial) forces followed the British troops back to Boston and deployed to start the Siege of Boston, cutting all land access to the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed (in Schrewsbury), later moving his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, both the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments named him commander of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived, overwater, in May and in June, Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating the Continental Army. On June 17 they commissioned Ward a major general, and appointed him second in command to General George Washington. (Ward was one of the original four major generals in the Continental Army along with Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler and Israel Putnam.)Over the next nine months he helped convert the assembled militia units into the Continental Army.

After the British evacuation of Boston on March 17, 1776, Washington led the main body of the army to New York City. Ward took command of the Eastern Department and held that post until March 1777, when ill health forced his resignation from the army.

Post-war and death Even during his military service, Ward also served as a state court justice in 1776 and 1777. From 1777 to 1779, as President of the state's Executive Council, he effectively served as governor before the ratification of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780. He was continuously elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1779 through 1785, leading it as Speaker in 1785.

He was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1780 and 1781,[21]and from 1791 to 1795 was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives.

Ward died at his home in Shrewsbury on October 28, 1800 and was buried with Sarah in the town's Mountain View Cemetery(His great-grandson Artemas Ward wrote The Grocer's Encyclopedia, published in 1911.)

Legacy Town of Ward The Town of Ward, Massachusetts was incorporated in 1778 in honor of Artemas Ward. In 1837 the town was renamed to Auburn, Massachusetts after complaints from the U.S. postal service that the name Ward was too similar to the nearby town of Ware

Artemas Ward House Wards's lifelong home had been built by his father, Nahum, about the time Artemas was born. The home is now known as the Artemas Ward House and is a museum preserved by Harvard University. Located at 786 Main Street in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts it is open to the public for limited hours during the summer months.

Statue of Artemas Ward at Ward Circle, Washington, D.C. Main article: Ward Circle Ward Circle is a traffic circle at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues in Northwest Washington, D.C. The land on three sides of Ward Circle is owned by American University. The circle contains a statue of Ward.

The great-grandson of Ward gave over four million dollars to Harvard University on the condition that they erect a statue in honor of Ward, and maintain his home in Shrewsbury.[28] Harvard's initial offer in 1927 of $50,000 toward the statue was enough for a statue, but inadequate to provide the general with a horse.

The statue was unveiled on November 3, 1938[30] by Maj. Gen. Ward's great-great-great-granddaughter, Mrs. Lewis Wesley Feick.Although there are no crosswalks for pedestrian access to the circle, the base of the statue bears this inscription:

ARTEMAS WARD 1727� SON OF MASSACHUSETTS GRADUATE OF HARVARD COLLEGE JUDGE AND LEGISLATOR DELEGATE 1780� TO THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS SOLDIER OF THREE WARS FIRST COMMANDER OF THE PATRIOT FORCES

American University American University named the Ward Circle Building, home of the American University School of Public Affairs, in honor of Artemas Ward, as it was the closest building at the time to Ward Circle. However, it was renamed to Kerwin Hall after their former president Cornelius M. Kerwin in June 2017.[33][34]

  • Rezidence: Massachusetts
  • Military service: Massachusetts, United States
  • Military service: Aug 18 1775 - Massachusetts, USA
  • Rezidence: USA - Between 1789 and 1853
  • Rezidence: Shrewsbury, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States - 1790
  • Military service: 1812 - United States
  • Rezidence: Chester, Windsor, Vermont, USA - 1840
    • Reference: MyHeritage Family Trees - SmartCopy: Jan 28 2021, 23:51:14 UTC

    Revolutionary War Continental Major General, Continental Congressman, US Congressman. When the American Revolutionary War started in April 1775 with the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Artemas Ward was given command of the militia forces that besieged the British forces in Boston, Massachusetts following the engagement. When the Continental Congress formed the Continental Army in June 1775, he was commissioned Major General in the new army and was named second in command to General George Washington. During the Boston Siege he worked on enlisting the militia members in the the Continental Army, and was given command of the Eastern Military District after the British evacuated Boston in March 1776. He resigned in commission in March 1777 due to ill health. He subsequently served as a delegate in the Continental Congress, and later in his life represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1791 to 1795.


    Artemus Ward

    Artemus Ward was the pen name of Charles Farrar Browne, who was born in Waterford, Maine. The son of a surveyor, storekeeper, and farmer, at 13 he was apprenticed to a printer. He set type for several newspapers in New England before a Boston printshop hired him in 1851. His first humorous sketches, signed "Chub," appeared in the Boston Carpet-bag. During the next 2 years he was a printer in several Ohio towns. In 1853 he became an editor on the Toledo Commercial between 1857 and 1861 he was an editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

    In 1858 Browne wrote a humorous letter purportedly from a traveling showman, Artemus Ward, for the Plain Dealer. Similar pieces appeared in this paper and then in Vanity Fair. He soon became a regular contributor to that comic magazine, moved to New York, and became an editor, serving until 1862. His writings were collected in Artemus Ward: His Book (1862), Artemus Ward: His Travels (1865), and Artemus Ward in London (1867). Ward used many of the procedures employed by a large group of very popular American humorists in the post-Civil War period: he assumed the role of a humorless ignoramus whose writings were studded with malapropisms, misspellings, grammatical errors, and strangely constructed sentences. In time, though, Ward dropped the assumed character and illiterate touches without discontinuing his use of the humor of diction. Helped by tricks of language, he wrote many burlesques and parodies, as well as sketches and travel accounts. Among his many readers was Abraham Lincoln, who read one of Ward's pieces to his Cabinet the day he presented his Emancipation Proclamation.

    Ward profited not only from writings but also from his lectures between 1860 and 1867. In a period when lecturers—on science, philosophy, literature, mesmerism, travel, and other topics—were appearing throughout the nation, Ward traveled through the East, the Midwest, and the Far West burlesquing these solemn and instructive lecturers. Wearing a funereal expression, he pleased audiences by solemnly saying the most absurd things. He was giving a very popular series of comic lectures in London in 1867 when illness forced him to discontinue he died there on March 9.

    Ward was important to a number of humorous writers, notably Mark Twain. Besides being responsible for the publication of Twain's first big success, his "Jumping Frog" story, in an eastern magazine in 1865, Ward provided an invaluable model for comic lecturing, as Twain himself acknowledged.


    Skatīties video: Ventspils bibliotēkas vēsture 1940-1989 (Maijs 2022).


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