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Bartolomeja gadatirgus

Bartolomeja gadatirgus



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Izstāde Smīldfīldā aizsākās 12. gadsimtā. Sākotnēji tas notika 24. un 25. augustā, bet notika Kārļa II valdīšanas laikā līdz divām nedēļām. Līdz 18. gadsimtam Svētā Bartolomeja gadatirgus bija viens no gada iespaidīgākajiem nacionālajiem un starptautiskajiem notikumiem. Tajā bija redzamas sānu izrādes, balvu ieguvēji, mūziķi, stiepļu staigātāji, akrobāti, lelles, ķēmi un savvaļas dzīvnieki.

Smitfīlds, piemēram, Taiburns un Ņūgeits, tika izmantots arī nāvessodu izpildei. Gandrīz 300 protestantu šeit štatā tika sadedzināti Mērijas Tjudoras valdīšanas laikā.

19. gadsimtā Smiltfīlda nostiprinājās kā lielākais gaļas tirgus Anglijā. Smiltfīlda bija arī nozīmīgs zirgu un liellopu tirgus līdz 1855. gadam, kad lopi tika nosūtīti uz Kaledonijas tirgu Islingtonā. 1868. gadā Smitfīldā tika uzcelta tirgus zāle ar dzelzs un stikla jumtu.

Apdruka ir Bartolomeja gadatirgus attēlojums. Šūpolēs nevērīgi disportē vairāki jaunieši, katrs ar savu mīļoto meiteni; tiešām tik pavirši, ka viens no viņiem, šķiet, ir izkritis. Apkārtējās ainavas; Svētā Bartolomeja slimnīca, baznīca un Smiltfīldas mājas piešķir ainai vērtību.


  Gadatirgus vēsture

Ceļojošie gadatirgi ir “nerakstīta daļa no tautas stāsta, ko reliģijas, tirdzniecības un izpriecu saites saista ar tautas dzīvi”. Tradīcija ir dzīva un dinamiska, un tā atspoguļo tās populārās kultūras ietekmi, kurā tā darbojas, un daudzos gadījumos tā ir pirms tās pilsētas vai apdzīvotās vietas vēstures, kurā tā parādās.

Pastāv trīs galvenie gadatirgu veidi - “preskripcijas gadatirgi”, kuru pamatā bija tirdzniecības princips un kas tika izveidoti pēc paražas, “hartas gadatirgi”, kurus piešķīra un aizsargāja Karaliskā harta, un “mopu gadatirgi”, kas galvenokārt attīstījās lauksaimniecības reģionos. darba ņēmēju pieņemšanai, bet pēc nedēļas sekoja “Runaway Mops”, kas deva darba devējiem iespēju pārskatīt savu lēmumu un vajadzības gadījumā pieņemt darbā no jauna. Joprojām turpinās attīstīties jaunas gadatirgu kategorijas, piemēram, pēdējos gados ir atjaunojušies “pilsētas centra gadatirgi”, kas atgriež gadatirgus cilvēkus un viņu pilsētu sirdis.

Lielākā daļa gadatirgu, kas notika Apvienotajā Karalistē, izseko savus senčus ar hartām un privilēģijām, kas piešķirtas viduslaiku periodā. Trīspadsmitajā gadsimtā gadatirgu veidošana pēc karaliskās hartas bija plaši izplatīta, un kronis darīja visu iespējamo, lai izveidotu jaunas gadatirgus un nodotu esošās savā jurisdikcijā. Līdz divpadsmitajam un trīspadsmitajam gadsimtam lielākajai daļai Anglijas gadatirgu bija piešķirtas hartas, un tie tika reorganizēti, lai atbilstu Eiropas kolēģiem. Tomēr hartu piešķiršana ne vienmēr deva tiesības rīkot gadatirgu: patiesībā tā bija kronas ieņēmumu kontrole apmaiņā pret kontroli un organizāciju, lai paliktu noteiktā pilsētā, abatijā vai ciematā. No 1199. līdz 1350. gadam tika izdotas vairāk nekā piecpadsmit hartas, kas piešķīra tiesības rīkot tirgus vai gadatirgus.

Gadatirgus varēja pieprasīt arī ar preskriptīvām tiesībām, jo ​​tiem nekad netika piešķirta harta, bet karalis vai viņa pārstāvis apriņķī ļāva tiem notikt, jo tie tika izveidoti ilgtermiņā.

Iznomāšanas gadatirgu vai mopu sākums meklējams četrpadsmitajā gadsimtā, kad 1351. gadā Edvards III pieņēma Darba ņēmēju nolikumu. Šie Statūtu gadatirgi jeb mopi, kā tie ir zināmi Midlendā, joprojām turpinājās sākotnējā nolūkā līdz deviņpadsmitā gadsimta beigām. Tomasa Hārdija aprakstītais sievas pārdošanas apraksts Kasterbridžas mērā ir bijis sievas pārdošanas gadījums netālu esošajā Andoveras ciematā 1817. gadā. Tomēr pat ar šiem gadatirgiem pasākuma sākotnējais mērķis drīz tika aizstāts ar izklaides puse, jo vairāk nekā trīs ceturtdaļas Austrumbraucēju darbā pieņemšanas gadatirgu Jorkšīrā nespēja izdzīvot divdesmitajā gadsimtā. Neskatoties uz to, ka divdesmitajā gadsimtā šie gadatirgi nespēja turpināties, piemēram, Mopliju gadatirgi, kas notika Studlijā, Stratfordā, Vorvikā, Bērtonā un Lofborā, visu savu eksistenci un turpinājumu kā gadatirgus ir parādā daudzu gadu oriģinālajām nomas izstādēm. pirms.

Līdz četrpadsmitajam gadsimtam visā Anglijā tika izveidots fraktēto un preskriptīvo gadatirgu tīkls. Astoņpadsmitajā gadsimtā šie lielie gadatirgi uzplauka ar Bartolomeja gadatirgu, Stourbridge, St Ives, Weyhill un daudziem citiem, kas visā valstī bija pazīstami kā tirdzniecības, tirdzniecības un izklaides centri.

Pašlaik Apvienotajā Karalistē katru nedēļas nogali notiek vairāk nekā divi simti gadatirgu, un zosu gadatirgus Notingemā un Hull Fair katru gadu pieaug un kļūst arvien populārāks.

Daudzus pēdējo 150 gadu tehnoloģiskos sasniegumus ceļojošie šovmeņi pirmo reizi izmantoja, lai gūtu komerciālu labumu. Šovmeņi bija atbildīgi par jauninājumiem populārās izklaidēs, piemēram, kinoteātrī, un plašu elektrības izmantošanu. Gadsimta gadatirgus apmeklētāji Jorkšīrā pirmo reizi redzēja automašīnu, kad viņi brauca ar Hannas Vadingtonas kundzes automašīnu. Elektrības brīnumus 1890. gados Skotijā lieliski demonstrēja burvis Dr Walford Bodie, paštaisns brits Edisons ar savu uzvedumu, kurā piedalījās Madame Electra.

Viktorijas laikmets bija viena no mainīgām bagātībām, un ceļojumu izklaides zelta laikmets parādījās tikai gadsimta otrajā pusē. Līdz deviņpadsmitā gadsimta sākumam gadatirgus ainavā sāka dominēt tādas atrakcijas kā teātra kabīnes, vaska darbi un izklaidējoši šovi. Gadsimta vidū parādījās savvaļas zvēru šovi, kas pazīstami kā zvērnīcas, kuras sāka uzņemties pārākumu pār savām konkurējošajām izstādēm gadatirgū.

Deviņpadsmitā gadsimta sākuma un vidus izrādes, iespējams, ir vislabāk dokumentētas no visām izklaidēm, kas parādījās gadatirgū, līdz tika ieviesti apļi ar tvaiku. Viņu ziedu laiks bija deviņpadsmitā gadsimta pirmajos piecdesmit gados, kad izstāžu laukuma ainavā dominēja zvērnīcas, cirki, izstādes un vaska darbi. Cilvēki, kas izstādīja šādas izstādes, kļuva par labi zināmām personībām un pieņēma ekstravagantus titulus, piemēram, Džordžs Sangers pieņēma titulu "Kungs". Daži šovmeņi, kas izstādījās šajā periodā, kļuva bagāti un pameta izstāžu centru pavisam. Starp tiem, kas palika gadatirgū, bija ģimenes, kas lika pamatus lielajiem panākumiem deviņpadsmitā gadsimta beigās.

Līdz 18. gadsimta 50. gadiem gadatirgos tirdzniecības elementi visā valstī, šķiet, tika aizstāti ar izklaidi, un izrādēm bija tendence samazināties. Bēdīgi slavenā Bartolomeja gadatirgus harta pēdējo reizi tika pasludināta 1855. gadā, un pēc tam ātri sekoja notikumu izzušana 1855. gadā Kembrvelā, 1857. gadā Griničā un 1860. gadā Stepnijā. šķita, ka vairs nepiesaista arvien sarežģītākas auditorijas uzmanību. Tajā laikā daudzi no slavenajiem deviņpadsmitā gadsimta pirmās daļas nosaukumiem arī atstāja ceļojošos gadatirgus. Lords Džordžs Sangers 1871. gadā kā cirka izstādi nopirka pastāvīgo Astlijas vietu un pārtrauca ceļot. Lai gan Bostoka un Vombvela zvērnīca joprojām būtu saistīti ar gadatirgu industriju vēl piecdesmit gadus, dibinātāja nāve 1850. gadā un viņa izrādes iznīcināšana 1872. gadā, šķiet, liecinātu, ka tauta ir pāraugusi savu vajadzību pēc šādas izklaides.

Gadatirgi visā valstī 1860. un 1870. gados šķita apdraudēti ne tikai 1868., 1871. un 1873. gada gadatirgu aktu rezultātā, bet arī tradicionālo vietu zaudēšanas dēļ pilsētas centros. 1871. gada gadatirgus likums ļāva vietējām varas iestādēm vai gadatirgu “īpašniekiem” iesniegt lūgumrakstu par to atcelšanu, un turpmākie grozījumi, kas tika ieviesti 1873. gada gadatirgus likumā, radīja iespēju mainīt dienas, kad pasākumu varēja rīkot. Tā laika vēsturnieki brīdināja par šādu notikumu zaudēšanu.

Tomēr gadatirgus varētu atcelt tikai tad, ja netiks izdarīts sabiedrības spiediens, lai novērstu šāda pasūtījuma izpildi. Ja paziņojums par atcelšanu tika sagaidīts ar sabiedrības sašutumu un spiedienu, valsts sekretāram bija tiesības atcelt vietējo varas iestāžu pieprasījumu. Lai novērstu šādu paziņojumu stāšanos spēkā, ceļojumu gadatirgiem bija jāpierāda to nepieciešamība iedzīvotāju atpūtas vajadzībām. Rūpnieciskās revolūcijas radītās pārmaiņas vēl nebija ietekmējušas gadatirgus piedāvātos izklaides veidus, kas konkurēja ar mūzikas zālēm, teātriem un ceļojošām izstādēm, piemēram, panorāmām un laternu šoviem, kas parādīja savas atrakcijas pilsētas vietās centri. Tomass Frosts 1874. gadā rakstīja, ka gadatirgi ir kļuvuši nevajadzīgi, un norādīja:

Kas tad vajadzīgs gadatirgiem un izrādēm? Tauta viņus ir pāraudzusi, un gadatirgi ir miruši kā paaudzes, kuras viņi ir iepriecinājuši, un pēdējais šovmenis drīz būs tikpat liels ziņkārīgs kā dodo.

Neskatoties uz šo pravietojumu gadatirgi turpināja izdzīvot un uzplaukt. Veikalu gadatirgi, kas saistīti ar strādnieku brīvdienām, kļuva par kopienas identitātes apliecinājumu, kurā cilvēki izteica sevi ar neierobežotu prieku meklēšanu. Paši gadatirgi sāka pielāgoties jauniem apstākļiem un aptvēra jauno un atšķirīgo. Lai gan auditorija bija mainījusies un notikumi kļuva arvien nepopulārāki pilsētas buržuāzijā, šādu gadatirgu pievilcība strādnieku šķiras vidū pieauga.

Astoņdesmitajos gados notika notikums, kas radīja revolūciju Viktorijas laikmeta gadatirgū un lika pamatus mūsdienu ceļojošo izklaides biznesam: ar tvaiku darbināmu apļveida krustojumu ieviešana gan Boltonas Jaungada gadatirgū, gan Jāņu gadatirgū Halifaksā. Drīz tam sekoja Frederiks Savage, dibinot Savage's firmu King's Lynn Norfolkā mehanizēto apļveida krustojumu būvniecībai. Izbraucienu un dizainu klāsts parādījās kulminācijā 1891. gadā, kad Savage’s izveidoja klasisko stilu angļu "Gallopers" vai, kā tas kļuva zināms Eiropā un Amerikā, karuseli. Mehanizācija pārcēla uzsvaru no izrādēm, kuru pamatā bija pagātne, uz braucieniem, kas šovmeņiem deva pilnīgu brīvību neatpalikt no revolucionārā laikmeta tehnoloģiskajiem sasniegumiem. Gadatirgus apļu zelta laikmets vēl bija priekšā, bet stādītās sēklas bija stipri izaugušas.

Līdz Viktorijas laikmeta beigām gadatirgus ainavu apdzīvoja visa veida braucieni: tvaika jahtas, pārslēgšanās un, protams, galopējošie zirgi. Mehanizācija padarīja izstāžu laukumu mūsdienīgu un futūristisku, un jaunākās laikmeta atrakcijas, piemēram, spoku šovi, kinematogrāfs un rentgena fotogrāfija, pilnībā izmantoja izstāžu šovmeitenes, kuras reklamēja savas atrakcijas kā visu cilvēku grupu patronas. Šovmeni ieguva prestižu un labklājību, ieguldot braucienos, kad viņi tika parādīti King's Lynn Valentīna dienas gadatirgū. Gadatirgus zelta laikmets bija pienācis, un līdz deviņpadsmitā gadsimta beigām gadatirgos vairs nebija lejupslīdes, un Apvienotajā Karalistē katru nedēļas nogali - no Lieldienām līdz novembrim - notika 200 pasākumi.

Mehanizācija gadatirgū notika vispiemērotākajā laikā tās vēsturē, tā atdzīvināja kādreiz krāšņās gadatirgus un izveidoja uzņēmēju hierarhiju gadatirgū. Gadatirgi kļuva par svētku kalendāra iezīmi gan pilsētā, gan valstī. Šī labklājības un cieņas pieauguma rezultātā valdība kļuva arvien iecietīgāka pret gadatirgu rīkošanu, izrādot nelielu interesi par iepriekšējā desmitgadē ieviesto tiesību aktu izpildi.

Mūsdienu ceļojumu gadatirgus ir parādā gan fraktēto un preskriptīvo gadatirgu tīklam, gan rūpnieciskās revolūcijas sākumam, kas ainavu pārveidoja par mūsdienīgu un kustīgu. Divdesmitajā gadsimtā jaunu un mūsdienīgu sajūtu uzplaukums izraisīja aizraujošus braucienus, un daudzas vecās atrakcijas aizstāja pātaga, kāpurs un mūsdienu klasika Waltzer un gudrības, kas visas pārveidoja gadatirgus ainavu.

Mūsdienu šovmeņi izstādes tirdzniecībā izmanto gan vēsturi, gan mūsdienīgumu. Gadatirgi ne tikai atspoguļo jauniešu kultūru, bet arī ir kļuvuši par daļu no lielākiem pasākumiem, kas atspoguļo sabiedrības daudzkultūru raksturu. Šovmeitenes ir iemācījušās pielāgoties un nodrošināt gadatirgu dažādām un dažādām auditorijām un, ja nepieciešams, aizvest cilvēkus pie cilvēkiem, nevis gaidīt, ka cilvēki ieradīsies savulaik tradicionālajā gadatirgū, kas notiek viņu pilsētā vai vietā.

Gadatirgus bija un joprojām ir vieta, kur visu veidu dzīvās un mehāniskās izklaides patronē visu veidu cilvēki. Briļļu, pieredzes, ilūzijas un realitātes sastāvdaļas ir daļa no lieliska kausējamā katla.


Saturs

Bartolomeja gadatirgus vieta bija Smitfīldas apļa dienvidaustrumu puse un sākotnēji bija audumu gadatirgus. Sākotnēji tas tika pasūtīts kā trīs dienu pasākums, tas ilgs divas nedēļas 17. gadsimtā, bet 1691. gadā tas tika saīsināts līdz tikai četrām dienām. [1] Mainoties kalendāram, gadatirgus sākās 1753. gada 3. septembrī. [2] Auduma un citu preču tirdzniecības pasākums, kā arī izpriecu gadatirgus, pasākums pulcēja pūļus no visām Anglijas sabiedrības grupām. [3] [4]

Bija ierasts, ka Londonas mērs atklāja gadatirgu Svētā Bartolomeja vakarā. Mērs apstājās Ņūgeitas cietumā, lai pieņemtu no gubernatora tasi maisa (stiprināts baltvīns). [1] [2] Tirgotāju Teilorsa ģilde apstrādāja Audumu gadatirgu, lai pārbaudītu auduma mērījumus, izmantojot savu standarta sudraba pagalmu, līdz 1854. gadam. Ikgadējā gadatirgus kļuva par galveno auduma pārdošanu karalistē. [2]

Līdz 1641. gadam gadatirgus bija ieguvis starptautisku nozīmi. Tā bija pāraugusi bijušo atrašanās vietu gar Audumu gadatirgu un ap Priory kapsētu, tagad aptverot četrus pagastus: Kristus baznīcu, Lielo un Mazo Svētā Baltkrievijas un Sv. Gadatirgū bija redzamas blakusizrādes, balvu ieguvēji, mūziķi, stiepļu gājēji, akrobāti, lelles, ķēmi un savvaļas dzīvnieki. [2]

Gadatirgu 1855. gadā apspieda pilsētas varas iestādes, jo tās veicināja izvirtību un sabiedriskās nekārtības. [2] [5] Newgate kalendārs bija nosodījis gadatirgu kā "netikumu skolu, kas ir iesaistījusi jauniešus ļaundarības paradumos vairāk nekā pati Ņūgeita". [6]


Bartolomeja gadatirgus - vēsture

OTRDIENA, 29. JŪNIJS BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY REMC DAY
8: 30-9: 30 Tirgus jēra svēršana-lopu kūts (ieejas biļete jāiesniedz visām aitām līdz pulksten 9:30)
10:00 četru stundu Barrow šovs un izrādes-paviljons
5–10 plkst. Lil ’Hands on the Farm, 4-H Kopienas ēka, ģimenes mākslas un tirdzniecības ēkas
17:00 Kopienas diena Midvejā - Konservēto preču nakts - 5 USD atlaide ar konservētām precēm, 25 USD aproces
18.00 4-H Best Dressed Rabbit & amp Rabbit Races-Gathering Pavilion
18:30 Zirgu un poniju meistara jātnieku konkurss
19.00 Kalēju demonstrācija- mantojuma ēka
19.00 Varžu lēcienu konkurss - fermu biroja ēka, reģistrācija pulksten 18.30.
19.00 Hordlighteri - Barbershop kvartets - Deivida Bolla teātris
19.00 All Star Circuit of Champions TQ Midgets - Tonija Stjuarta fonda sacensības - tribīne

TREŠDIENA, 30. JŪNIJS BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY JAUNO FARMERS DIENA
8:00 sākas četru stundu traktora konkursa reģistrācija (ierakstu lapa jāiesniedz konkursa laikā.)
8:30 4-H Cat & amp Caged Critter reģistrācija, parādīt, lai sekotu
9–11 Atklātās klases ziedi - Ģimenes mākslas ēka

10:00-Elite Cheer-Deivida Bola teātris
Pusdienlaiks - 19.00 Kalēju demonstrācijas - mantojuma ēka (būs izslēgta un ieslēgta visu dienu)
Pusdienlaiks - 22:00 Lil ’Hands on the Farm, 4-H Kopienas ēka, ģimenes mākslas un tirdzniecības ēkas
14.00–22.00 Pusceļš tiek atvērts - Bērnu diena - 18 USD aproces visu dienu un nakti (bez vecuma ierobežojuma)
13:00 Lil ’Wrangler aitu izstāde, 4-h aitu izstāde-paviljons
14.00 Pedāļu traktora vilkšana - uz austrumiem no saimniecības biroja ēkas reģistrācija sākas plkst. $ 2 ieeja
15–16 Piedzīvojumu dienas karnevāls - Deivida Bolla teātris
17.00–19.00 Pagarinājuma mājražotāji - kucēnu spilvenu sesija - ģimenes mākslas ēka
5–6 vakarā TBD - Deivida Bola teātris
18.00 Bērnu karnevāla spēles un fermas nieki - saimniecības biroja ēka
18:30 Zirgu un poniju lietus datums vai izjādes arēnā
19.00 Naktspūces kantrī grupa - Deivida Bola teātris
19.00 Indiānas kravas automašīnu vilkšanas asociācija - tribīne
8. – 21. Lieldienu burvju šovs - saimniecības biroja ēka

Bartolomejas apgabals, kas atrodas Indiānas centrā, spīd kā piemērs tam, kāda var būt amerikāņu kopiena. Īsā nedēļā siltajās vasaras dienās cilvēki no apkārtnes pulcējas uz ēdienu, jautrību, ģimeni un draugiem Bartolomejas apgabala 4-H gadatirgū.

Pēc gadskārtējā pasākuma noslēguma un stendu, izstāžu un izbraucienu atņemšanas, atliek tikai ļoti dzīvotspējīgu vietu kolekcija, ko var iznomāt kā sava pasākuma norises vietu. Pārējos 11 mēnešus teritorija ir aizņemta ar tādiem pasākumiem kā Bila Rodžersa klasiskais liellopu šovs, Skotijas festivāls un daudzas citas atrakcijas. Gadatirgū visu gadu notiek arī publiska kempings, pasākumi un kāzu pieņemšanas.


Bartolomeja gadatirgus kopsavilkums

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Autors Timotijs Sekstons

Luga tiek veidota gadatirgus laikā, kas tam piešķir nosaukumu, kas notiek Svētā Baltramieva dienā. Šā gada 24. augustā Smīldfīldā vairāk nekā īstā īpatnējo rakstzīmju daļa krustojas. Aplūkojot neskaidrības, štata vadītājs, šķiet, ir spiests uzrunāt auditoriju, atvainojoties par izrādes aizkavēšanos. Pēc tam viņš sazvērnieciski piedāvā savu unikālo griezienu tam, ko viņi būs liecinieki, kad izrāde beidzot sāksies: luga nav literārs šedevrs, kas nav īsti pārsteidzoši, ņemot vērā to, kurš to uzrakstījis. Vadītāju pārtrauca ierosinātājs, kurš turpina atkārtot garo, sarežģīto un mulsinošo līgumu, kas pastāv starp autoru un viņa auditoriju, atgādinot pūlim, ka viņi tiek tiesāti, pieņemot savu individuālo spriedumu pēc būtības, un turklāt nav jēgas pat mēģinot vilkt paralēles starp varoņiem uz skatuves un visiem faktiskajiem cilvēkiem, kas viņiem varētu būt pazīstami teātra pasaulē.

Turpmāk ir daudz mazāk atkarīgs no konkrētu notikumu specifikas, un tas vairāk attiecas uz humora radītu krāsaina rakstura parādi un ātru komplekta un stāstījuma maiņu. Šo mijiedarbības kolektīvo efektu rada divi galvenie stāstījuma virzieni: svētākā, nekā tu, puritāniskā liekulīgā, Zemes uzmundrinātā vajāšana no Dame Purecraft rokas un Koksa zaudētā saderinātā Greisa Velborna Winwife. . Šo romānu starpā ir sarežģīti adīts un mezglots ir tiesneša Ādama Overdo ierašanās maskējoties, lai viņš klīst apkārt neatpazītai, lai varētu iegūt pilnīgi detalizētu izstādes “milzīguma” izklāstu. Pa ceļam Kokss zaudēs ne tikai sievieti, kurai bija jāprecas, bet arī viņa pasaulīgo mantu. Tiesneša Overdo mēģinājums slēpt izmeklēšanu liek viņam likvidēties krājumos.

Visi šie uzjautrinošie atgadījumi-uzjautrinoši visiem, izņemot puritāņus, kuri tēloja izņēmumu,-noved pie pēdējā cēliena, kurā tiek demonstrēta leļļu izrāde pēc Mārlovas varoņa un Leandera, kā arī debates starp lelli un Zelmeni un zemi. teātra un spēles aktiermorāle. Visbeidzot, tiesnesis Overdo saprot, ka viņa bažas par gadatirgus ļaunprātības milzīgumu bija ārkārtīgi nevietā.

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XLIII NODAĻA.

SMITHFIELD UN BARTHOLOMEW Fair.

Zīdkoka dārzs Sv. Ubagu opera- "Džons Audlijs" - Gariks satiek brāli Aktieri - Bīstama apkaime - Vecais Smīldfīldas tirgus - Smitfīldas apdegumu paliekas - Cilvēka palieku atklāšana.

Liela daļa no pirmavota tika pārbūvēta Henrija IV valdīšanas laikā, un tā kļuva slavena ar zīdkoka dārzu, "vienu no pirmajiem stādītajiem Anglijā. Šis dārzs stāvēja uz austrumiem no tagadējās Middlesex ejas, un tas bija zem saviem lielajiem lapu kokiem, ko zinātnieki godīgā laikā rīkoja loģiskus strīdus. Vārtu iekšienē priorejas ziemeļu daļu aizņēma liela kapsēta ar plašu pagalmu, kas tagad ir Bartolomejs Aizvērts. Pēc Henrija IV laikmeta pilsēta nodibināja stingras tiesības uz visām godīgajām nodevām ārpus priora iežogojuma. Pēdējais Svētā Bartolomeja premjers, kuru atzina Anglijas karaļi, nomira amatā, un tas bija pēdējais Rietumu Smiltfīldas melnais kanons. tas pats priors Boltons, kurš uzcēla oriēlu baznīcā, lai zakristāns varētu skatīties altārgaismas, un viņš, kā jau parādījām, lielā mērā uzcēla Kanberberijā.Viņa jurisdikcijā bija divi pagasti - Lielā Sv. Disos lūk, algu un slimnīcu uz visiem laikiem plosīja mantkārīgas rokas.

1537. gadā sers Tomass Grešems, toreiz lords mērs, lūdza, lai pilsēta pārvalda Svētās Marijas, Svētā Tomasa un Svētā Bartolomeja slimnīcas, "lai palīdzētu, palīdzētu un palīdzētu bezpalīdzīgajiem nabadzīgajiem un trūcīgajiem". 1544. gadā karalis nodibināja jaunu Svētā Bartolomeja slimnīcu priestera vadībā un četrus kapelānus, bet vieta tika nepareizi pārvaldīta, un karalis Henrijs VIII. dibināja to no jauna, "lai nepārtraukti atvieglotu un palīdzētu simtiem sāpošu un slimu".

Likvidējot gadatirgus privilēģijas, dalījās korporācija un lords Ričs (miris 1568. gadā), Vorvikas un Holandes grāfu priekštecis. Audumu gadatirgus saruka Elizabetes valdīšanas laikā, kad Londonas drapērijas atrada plašākus vilnas tirgu, un audekli, ceļiem augot, sāka virzīties uz plašākiem laukiem. Trīs dienu gadatirgus drīz pārauga četrpadsmit dienu karnevālā, uz kuru ķērās visas rindas. Mēs atrodam simpātisko un apcerīgo Evelīnu, kas raksta, ka viņš ir redzējis Baltkrievijas "svinīgās muļķības" un ka cilvēks, kas uzkrājas, sers Hanss Sloāns, sūtot sagatavotāju ierakstīt katru lusus naturæ vai īpaša dīvainība. 1708. gadā (karaliene Anna), kad šādas licences apgrūtinājums kļuva nepanesams apkārtnei, gadatirgus atkal tika ierobežots līdz trim dienām. Saturnālijas vienmēr oficiāli atklāja lords mērs, un paziņojums šim nolūkam tika nolasīts pie auduma izstādes ieejas. Braucot uz Smitfīldu, mēram bija ierasts piezvanīt Ņūgeitas sargātājam un zirga mugurā baudīt "vēsu vīna, muskatrieksta un cukura tvertni", kas atcerēsies, izraisīja mēra sera Džona Šortera nāve 1688. gadā, viņa zirgs sākās un vardarbīgi metās. Šī paraža beidzās sera Metjū Vuda otrajā mēra amatā.

"1615. gadā," (fn. 1) saka Hovss, "Londonas Sitija samazināja rupjo, plašo Smildfīldas vietu par godīgu un godīgu kārtību, kas agrāk nekad nebija uzskatāma par iespējamu, un visu to bruģēja, un lika ūdenslīdējiem notekūdeņus novadīt ūdeni no jaunajiem kanāliem, kas tika izveidoti jaunā seguma dēļ, viņi arī ap Smitfīldu apvija spēcīgus starus, un minētās Smiltfīldas vidusdaļu nošķīra ļoti godīgā un civilajā gājienā un aplika to apkārt ar spēcīgiem stariem, lai aizstāvētu vietu no kaitinājuma un briesmām, kā arī no ratiņiem, kā no visa veida cattell, jo turpmāk bija paredzēts, ka ar laiku tas varētu izrādīties taisnīgāks un mierīgāks tirgus, jo Ņūgeitas tirgus, Mūrgeita , Cheapside, Leadenhall un Gracechurche Street bija neizmērojami kaitināti ar neiedomājamu tirgus ļaužu pieaugumu un daudzveidību. Un šis lauks, ko parasti sauc par West Smithfield, daudzus gadus tika saukts par "Ruffians" zāli, jo tā bija ierasta vieta jā un kopīgas cīņas laikā, kad tika izmantoti zobeni un sprādzieni. Taču sekojošā nāvējošā reperu un dunču cīņa pēkšņi apspieda cīņu ar zobenu un sprādzi. "

Šekspīram ir vairāk nekā viens mājiens uz zirgu gadatirgu Smiltfīldā, un no tiem visievērojamākais ir:

Lappuse. Viņš ir devies uz Smīldfīldu, lai nopirktu jūsu dievkalpojumam zirgu.

Falstaff. Es nopirku viņu Pāvila veikalā, un viņš man nopirks zirgu Smīldfīldā, un es varētu dabūt mani, bet sievu sautējumos, es biju apkalpots, zirgs un sieva.Henrija IV otrā daļa., I akts, Sc. 2. (2. pielikums)

Šis smalkais, enerģiskais vecais satīriķis Bens Džonsons, dārgais Šekspīra draugs un protežē, nosauca vienu no savām labākajām komēdijām pēc šīs lieliskās Londonas gadatirgus un ir izmantojis savu Hārtgartijas ģēniju, lai attēlotu kabatzagļus, ēstuves un protestētājus puritāņus, muļķīgi pilsoņi un Džeimsa I valdīšanas leļļu izrāžu īpašnieki. Daži izvilkumi no viņa amizantās lugas, Bartolomeja gadatirgus, 1613 (rakstīts pašā autora varas kulminācijā), ir neaizstājami jebkurā vēsturē, lai arī cik īsa, šī nacionālā jautrības uzliesmojuma vēsture. Šis izraksts no Morlija kunga grāmatas "Bartolomeja gadatirgus vēsture" satur dažus no raksturīgākajiem fragmentiem: -

"Nē," saka Littlewit, "mēs būsim pietiekami pazemīgi, mēs meklēsim vismīļāko stendu gadatirgū, tas drīzāk ir skaidrs, nekā neizdodas, mēs to ēdīsim uz zemes." "Jā," piebilst Dame Purecroft, "un es pati iešu tev līdzi. Win-the-Fight un mans brālis Zemes Zelts dosies mums līdzi arī mūsu labāka mierinājuma dēļ." Tad rabīns saka: "Mierinot vājos, es iešu un ēdīšu. Es ēdu ļoti daudz un pareģojumus. Iespējams, ka arī to var izmantot, tagad es domāju, ka ne publisku cūku gaļas ēšanu, lai apliecinātu mūsu naidu un riebumu pret jūdaismu, no kā brāļi tiek aplikti ar nodokļiem. Tāpēc es ēdu, jā, es ēdīšu ļoti daudz. " Tātad arī šie devās ceļā uz gadatirgu.

Gadatirgū, kā jau teicu, ir tiesvedība Overdue, kas svinīgi apliecina sevi kā muļķi sabiedrības morāles labā. Ir kabīnes un stendi. Tur ir plaukstošais hobijzirgs Lanthorn Leatherhead, kurš kliedz: "Kas tev trūkst? Ko tu nepērc? Kas tev trūkst? Gārdas, bungas, halberti, zirgi, labākie mazuļi, mīklas labākais! " Viņš ir pārāk lepns pedleris, arī slavenās leļļu izrādes īpašnieks, menedžeris, par kuru Proktors Litvits ir upurējis Bartolomeja mūzām. Piparkūku sieva Džoana Trash tur savu stendu sev blakus, un konkurējošajiem tirgotājiem ir atšķirības. "Vai dzirdi, māsiņa Trash, groza kundze! Sēdies tālāk ar piparkūku pēcnācējiem, tur, un netraucē izredzēt manu veikalu, pretējā gadījumā es likšu to izstāstīt gadatirgū, no kā izgatavoti." "Kāpēc, uz kādām lietām tie ir izgatavoti, brāli Leatherhead? Es jums apliecinu neko citu kā veselīgu." - Jā, jūs zināt, novecojusi maize, sapuvušas olas, sapuvis ingvers un beigts medus. "Es izaicinu tevi un tavu hobija zirgu stalli. Es maksāju par savu zemi, kā arī tu. Pērc piparkūkas, apzeltītas piparkūkas! Vai jūsu dievkalpojums nopirks piparkūkas? Ļoti laba maize, ērta maize!"

Gadatirgus saucieni vairojas. "Nopirkt kādas balādes? Jaunas balādes! Hei!"
"Tagad gadatirgus ir piepildījums!
Ak, lai melodija nobiedētu
Putni no kabīnēm šeit norēķinās
Katru gadu kopā ar veco Sentbārtu! "

"Pērciet jebkādus bumbierus, bumbierus, smalkus, ļoti smalkus bumbierus!" "Kas jums trūkst, kungi? Kalpone, redziet savam jaunajam saimniekam smalku apiņu zirgu. Viņa dārgakmens tev izmaksās tikai kā zīmi (fn. 3) nedēļā."

"Vai jums ir varžacis uz kājām un pirkstiem?"

- Nopirkt blusai peļu slazdu, peļu slazdu vai mocītāju?

"Kas jums trūkst, kungi? Smalkas somiņas, maisiņi, kniedes, pīpes? Kas jums netrūkst? Kalēju pāris, lai jūs no rīta pamodinātu, vai smalks svilpojošs putns?"

"Balādes! Balādes! Smalkas jaunas balādes!"

"Klausieties par savu mīlestību un pērciet par savu naudu,

Smalka balāde par sesku un konusu Duci dievišķo punktu un dievbijīgas prievītes, Laba padoma sniegšana, ella un trīs ceturtdaļas. "

"Kas jums trūkst, ko jūs pērkat, saimniece? Labs hobijs-zirgs, lai padarītu jūsu dēlu par muldētāju? Bungas, lai padarītu viņu par karavīru? Vijole, lai padarītu viņu par gaviļnieku? Kas jums netrūkst?" "mazi suņi jūsu meitām, vai mazuļi, tēviņi vai mātītes?"

"Mīļās sievietes, kur ir karsts laiks, kurp jūs staigāt? Rūpējieties par smalkām samta cepurēm, un gadatirgus ir putekļains. Paņemiet saldu, smalku stendu ar atzarojumiem šeit, ceļā, un atdzesējiet sevi ēnā, jūs un jūsu draugi. labākā cūka un alus pudele gadatirgū, kungs. Vecais Ursula ir pavārs. Tur jūs varat izlasīt: "Lūk, labākās cūkas, un viņa tos cep tāpat kā jebkad agrāk" "-(tur ir cūkas galva virs uzraksta, un) - "cūkas galva to runā".

"Smalka šova cūka, maza saimniece, ar saldu mērci un sprakšķēšanu, piemēram, lauru lapas, uguns, la! Tūram jābūt galda recekļa tīrajai pusei un stikla stikla šķīvim ar fāsteru no Dame Annesh Cleare. " (4. lpp.)

Rakstā "Asprātība un drolērija: dzīvespriecīgi dzejoļi" 1682. gadā rakstnieks ir uzsitis vairākus galvenos gadatirgus retumus: -
"Lūk, tas izaicinās visus godīgos.
Nāc, nopērc manus riekstus un damsons, un Burgamy bumbierus!
Lūk, Bābeles sieviete, velns un pāvests,
Un šeit ir mazā meitene, kas tikai iet pa virvi!
Lūk Niršana un Lācars, un Pasaules radīšana
Lūk, garā holandiete, līdzīgi nav tautā.
Šeit ir kabīnes, kur atrodas augstā holandiešu kalpone
Šeit ir lāči, kas dejo kā jebkuras dāmas
Tat, tat, tat, tat, saka mazo pensu trompete
Šeit ir Jēkaba ​​zāle, kas to dara, lēkt, lēkt
Skaņa, trompete, skaņa sudraba karotei un dakšai,
Nāc, te ir tava gardā cūka un cūkgaļa. "

1698. gadā francūzis monsieur Sorbière, apmeklējot Londonu, saka: "Es biju Bartolomeja gadatirgū. Tas galvenokārt sastāv no rotaļlietu veikaliem, arī smalkumiem un attēliem, lentīšu veikaliem-bez grāmatām, daudzos konditorejas veikalos var tikt ārstēts. Knavery šeit ir pilnība, izveicīgi griezēji un kabatzagļi. Es devos redzēt dejas uz virvēm, kas bija apbrīnas vērts. Iznākot, es satiku vīrieti, kurš būtu noņēmis cepuri, bet es to nodrošināju, un gatavojās izvilkt manu zobenu, raudādams: "Begar! Tu nelietis! Morbleu!" & ampc., kad pēkšņi man apkārt raudāja simts cilvēku: "Lūk, monsieur, sk. Jefta izsitumu zvērests. ' - Šeit, monsieur, redziet garo holandieti. "Skatīt tīģeri," saka cits. "Skatīt zirgu un bez zirga", kura aste stāv tur, kur viņa galvai vajadzētu darīt. "Skatiet vācu mākslinieku, monsieur." 'Redzi Namūras aplenkums. ' Tā ka starp rupjībām un pieklājību es biju spiests iekļūt a fiacreun ar steigu un pilnu rikšotāju nokļuvu mājās, pie manis. ”

1702. gadā attiecībā uz gadatirgu parādījās šāda reklāma: -

"At the Great Booth over against the Hospital Gate, in Bartholomew Fair, will be seen the famous company of ropedancers, they being the greatest performers of men, women, and children that can be found beyond the seas, so that the world cannot parallel them for dancing on the low rope, vaulting on the high rope, and for walking on the slack and sloaping ropes, outdoing all others to that degree, that it has highly recommended them, both in Bartholomew Fair and May Fair last, to all the best persons of quality in England. And by all are owned to be the only amazing wonders of the world in everything they do. It is there you will see the Italian Scaramouch dancing on the rope, with a wheelbarrow before him with two children and a dog in it, and with a duck on his head, who sings to the company, and causes much laughter. The whole entertainment will be so extremely fine and diverting, as never was done by any but this company alone."

Ned Ward, as the "London Spy," went, of course, to the fair, but in a coach, to escape the dirt and the crowd, and at the entrance he says he was "saluted with Belphegor's concert, the rumbling of drums, mixed with the intolerable squeaking of catcalls and penny trumpets, made still more terrible with the shrill belches of lottery pickpockets through instruments of the same metal with their faces." The spy having been set down with his friend at the hospital gate, went into a convenient house, to smoke a pipe and drink small beer bittered with colocynth. From one of its windows he looked down on a crowd rushing, ankle-deep in filth, through an air tainted by fumes of tobacco and of singeing, over-roasted pork, to see the Merry Andrew. On their galleries strutted, in their buffoonery of stateliness, the quality of the fair, dressed in tinsel robes and golden leather buskins. "When they had taken a turn the length of their gallery, to show the gaping crowd how majestically they could tread, each ascended to a seat agreeable to the dignity of their dress, to show the multitude how imperiously they could sit."

A few years before this the fair is sketched by Sir Robert Southwell, in a letter to his son (26th August, 1685). "Here," he says, "you see the rope-dancers gett their living meerly by hazarding of their lives and why men will pay money and take pleasure to see such dangers, is of separate and philosophical consideration. You have others who are acting fools, drunkards, and madmen, but for the same wages which they might get by honest labour, and live with credit besides. Others, if born in any monstrous shape, or have children that are such, here they celebrate their misery, and, by getting of money, forget how odious they are made. When you see the toy-shops, and the strange variety of things much more impertinent than hobbyhorses of ginger-bread, you must know there are customers for all these matters and it would be a pleasing sight could you see painted a true figure of all these impertinent minds and their fantastic passions, who come trudging hither only for such things. Tis out of this credulous crowd that the ballad-singers attrackt an assembly, who listen and admire, while their confederate pickpockets are diving and fishing for their prey.

"'Tis from those of this number who are more refined that the mountebank obtains audience and credit and it were a good bargain if such customers had nothing for their money but words, but they are best content to pay for druggs and medicines, which commonly doe them hurt. There is one corner of this Elizium field devoted to the eating of pig and the surfeits that attend it. The fruits of the season are everywhere scattered about, and those who eat imprudently do but hasten to the physitian or the churchyard."

"In the year 1727-28," says Mr. Morley, "Gay's Beggar's Opera was produced, and took the foremost place among the pleasures of the town. It took a foremost place also among the pleasures of the next Bartholomew Fair, being acted during the time of the fair by the company of comedians from the new theatre in the Haymarket, at the 'George' Inn in Smithfield. William Penkethman, one of the actors who had become famous as a boothmanager, was then recently dead, and the Haymarket comedians carried the Beggar's Opera out of Bartholomew into Southwark Fair, where 'the late Mr. Penkethman's great theatrical booth' afforded them a stage. One of the managers of this specula tion was Henry Fielding, then only just of age, a young man who, with good birth, fine wit, and a liberal education, both at Eton and at Leyden University, was left to find his own way in the world. His father agreed to allow him two hundred a year in the clouds, and, as he afterwards said, his choice lay between being a hackney writer and a hackney coachman. He lived to place himself, in respect to literature, at the head of the prose writers of England, I dare even venture to think, of the world."

"A writer in the St. James's Chronicle (March 24, 1791) wished to place upon record the fact that it was Shuter, a comedian, who, in the year 1759, when master of a droll in Smithfield, invented a way, since become general at fairs, of informing players in the booth when they may drop the curtain and dismiss the company, because there are enough people waiting outside to form another audience. The man at the door pops in his head, and makes a loud inquiry for 'John Audley.'" The ingenious contriver of this device is the Shuter who finds a place in "The Rosciad" of Churchill:
"Shuter, who never cared a single pin
Whether he left out nonsense, or put in."

"There lived," says Mr. Morley, "about this time a popular Merry Andrew, who sold gingerbread nuts in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, and because he received a guinea a day for his fun during the fair, he was at pains never to cheapen himself by laughing, or by noticing a joke, during the other 362 days of the year."

"Garrick's name," says the same writer, "is connected with the fair only by stories that regard him as a visitor out of another world. He offers his money at the entrance of a theatrical booth, and it is thought a jest worth transmitting to posterity that he is told by the checktaker, 'We never takes money of one another.' He sees one of his own sturdy Drury Lane porters installed at a booth-door, where he is pressed sorely in the crowd, and calls for help. 'It's no use,' he is told, 'I can't help you. There's very few people in Smithfield as knows Mr. Garrick off the stage.'"

In "Oliver Twist" Dickens sketches with his peculiar power the dangerous neighbourhood of Smithfield, which lay between Islington and Saffron Hill, the lurking-place of the Sykeses and Fagins of thirty years ago:—

"As John Dawkins," says Dickens, "objected to their entering London before nightfall, it was nearly eleven o'clock before they reached the turnpike at Islington. They crossed from the 'Angel' into St. John's Road, struck down the small street which terminates at Sadler's Wells Theatre, through Exmouth Street and Coppice Row, down the little court by the side of the workhouse, across the classic ground which once bore the name of Hockley-in-the-Hole, thence into Little Saffron Hill, and so into Saffron Hill the Great, along which the Dodger scudded at a rapid pace, directing Oliver to follow close at his heels.

BAZNĪCA ST. BARTHOLOMEW-THE-GREAT, 1737.

"Although Oliver had enough to occupy his attention in keeping sight of his leader, he could not help bestowing a few hasty glances on either side of the way, as he passed along. A dirtier or more wretched place he had never seen. The street was very narrow and muddy, and the air was impregnated with filthy odours. There were a good many small shops, but the only stock-in-trade appeared to be heaps of children, who, even at that time of night, were crawling in and out at the doors, or screaming from the inside. The sole places that seemed to prosper amid the general blight of the place were the public-houses, and in them the lowest orders of Irish were wrangling with might and main. Covered ways and yards, which here and there diverged from the main street, disclosed little knots of houses where drunken men and women were positively wallowing in the filth, and from several of the doorways great, ill-looking fellows were cautiously emerging, bound, to all appearance, upon no very well-disposed or harmless errands."

The enormous sale of roast pork at Bartholomew Fair ceased, says Mr. Morley, with all the gravity of a historian, about the middle of the last century, and beef sausages then became the fashion. Thomas Rowlandson's droll but gross pictures of the shows, in 1799, show those sickening boatswings and crowds of rough and boisterous sightseers. He writes on one of the show-boards the name of Miss Biffin, that clever woman who, through the Earl of Morton's patronage, succeeded in earning a name as a miniature painter, though born without either hands or arms. In 1808 George III. paid for her more complete artistic education, and William IV. gave her a small pension, after which she married, and, at the Earl of Morton's request, left the fair caravans for good.

This great carnival, a dangerous sink for all the vices of London, was gradually growing unbearable. In 1801 a mob of thieves surrounded any respectable woman, and tore her clothes from her back. In 1802 "Lady Holland's Mob," as it used to be called, robbed visitors, beat inoffensive passersby with bludgeons, and pelted harmless persons who came to their windows with lights, alarmed at the disturbance. In 1807 the place grew even more lawless, and a virago of an actress, who was performing Belvidera in Venice Preserved, knocked down the august king's deputy-trumpeter, who applied for his fees. Richardson's shows were triumphant still, as in 1817 was Toby, "the real learned pig," who, with twenty handkerchiefs over his eyes, could tell the hour to a minute, and pick out a card from a pack. In one morning of September, 1815, there were heard at Guildhall forty-five cases of felony, misdemeanour, and assault, committed at Bartholomew Fair. Its doom was fixed. Hone, in 1825, went to sketch the dying sinner, and describes Clarke from Astley's, Wombwell's Menagerie, and the Living Skeleton. The special boast of Wombwell, who had been a cobbler in Monmouth Street, was his Elephant of Siam, who used to uncork bottles, and decide for the rightful heir, in a very brief Oriental melodrama. The shows, which were now forced to close at ten, had removed to the New North Road, Islington. Lord Kensington, in 1827, had offered to remove the fair, and in 1830 the Corporation bought of him the old priory rights. In 1839 Mr. Charles Pearson recommended more restriction, and the exclusion of theatrical shows followed. The rents were raised, and in 1840 only wild beast shows were allowed. The great fair at last sank down to a few gilt gingerbread booths. In 1849 the fair had so withered away that there were only a dozen gingerbread stalls. The ceremony of opening since 1840 had been very simple, and in 1850 Lord Mayor Musgrove, going to read the parchment proclamation at the appointed gateway, found that the fair had vanished. Five years later the ceremony entirely ceased, but the old fee of 3s. 6d. was still paid by the City to the rector of St. Bartholomew-the-Great, for a proclamation in his parish. The fair had outlived its original purpose.

Smithfield Market was condemned in 1852 by law to be moved to Islington, the noise, filth, and dangers of the place having at last become intolerable, and half a century having been spent in discussing the annoyance.

"The original extent of Smithfield," says Mr. Timbs,"was about three acres the market-place was paved, drained, and railed in, 1685 subsequently enlarged to four and a half acres, and since 1834 to six and a quarter acres. Yet this enlargement proved disproportionate to the requirements. In 1731 there were only 8,304 head of cattle sold in Smithfield in 1846, 210, 757 head of cattle, and 1,518,510 sheep. The old City laws for its regulation were called the "Statutes of Smithfield." Here might be shown 4,000 beasts and about 30,000 sheep, the latter in 1,509 pens and there were fifty pens for pigs. Altogether, Smithfield was the largest live market in the world."

The old market-days were, Monday for fat cattle and sheep Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for hay and straw Friday, cattle and sheep, and milch cows and at two o'clock for scrub-horses and asses. All sales took place by commission. The customary commission for the sale of an ox of any value was 4s., and of a sheep, 8d. The City received a toll upon every beast exposed for sale of 1d. per head, and of sheep at the rate of 1s. per score. Smithfield salesmen estimated the weight of cattle by the eye, and from constant practice they approached so near exactness that they were seldom out more than a few pounds. The sales were always for cash. No paper was passed, but when the bargain was struck the buyer and seller shook hands, and closed the sale. £7,000,000, it was said, were annually paid away in this manner in the narrow area of Smithfield Market. "The average weekly sale of beasts," said Cunningham in 1849, "is said to be about 3,000, and of sheep about 30,000, increased in the Christmas week to about 5,000 beasts, and 47,000 sheep. The following return shows the number of cattle and sheep annually sold in Smithfield during the following periods:—
Cattle. Sheep.
1841 194,298 1,435,000
1842 210,723 1,655,370
1843 207,195 1,817,360
1844 216,848 1,804,850
1845 222,822 1,539,660
1846 210,757 1,518,510

In addition to this, a quarter of a million pigs were annually sold."

The miseries of old Smithfield are described by Mr. Dickens, in "Oliver Twist," in his most powerful manner. "It was market morning," he says "the ground was covered nearly ankle-deep with filth and mire, and a thick steam perpetually rising from the reeking bodies of the cattle, and mingling with the fog which seemed to rest upon the chimney-tops, hung heavily above. All the pens in the centre of the large area, and as many temporary ones as could be crowded into the vacant space, were filled with sheep and tied up to posts by the gutter-side were long lines of oxen, three or four deep. Countrymen, butchers, drovers, hawkers, boys, thieves, idlers, and vagabonds of every low grade, were mingled together in a dense mass. The whistling of drovers, the barking of dogs, the bellowing and plunging of beasts, the bleating of sheep, and grunting and squeaking of pigs the cries of hawkers, the shouts, oaths, and quarrelling on all sides, the ringing of bells, and the roar of voices that issued from every public-house, the crowding, pushing, driving, beating, whooping, and yelling, the hideous and discordant din that resounded from every corner of the market, and the unwashed, unshaven, squalid, and dirty figures constantly running to and fro, and bursting in and out of the throng, rendered it a stunning and bewildering scene, which quite confused the senses."

Smithfield Market, on a foggy, rainy morning in November, some twenty-five years ago (says Aleph), was a sight to be remembered by any who had ventured through it. It might be called a feat of clever agility to get across Smithfield, on such a greasy, muddy day, without slipping down, or without being knocked over by one of the poor frightened and half-mad cattle toiling through it. The noise was deafening. The bellowing and lowing of cattle, bleating of sheep, squeaking of pigs, the shouts of the drovers, and often, the shrieks of some unfortunate female who had got amongst the unruly, frightened cattle, could not be forgotten. The long, narrow lanes of pavement that crossed the wider part of the market, opposite the hospital, were always lined with cattle, as close together as they could stand, their heads tied to the rails on either side of the scanty pathway, when the long horns of the Spanish breeds, sticking across towards the other side, made it far from a pleasant experience for a nervous man to venture along one of these narrow lanes, albeit it was the nearest and most direct way across the open market. If the day was foggy (and there were more foggy days then than now), then the glaring lights of the drover-boys' torches added to the wild confusion, whilst it did not dispel much of the gloom. It was indeed a very great change for the better when at last the City authorities removed the market into the suburbs.

In March, 1849, during excavations necessary for a new sewer, and at a depth of three feet below the surface, immediately opposite the entrance to the church of St. Bartholomew-the-Great, the workmen laid open a mass of unhewn stones, blackened as if by fire, and covered with ashes and human bones, charred and partially consumed. This was believed to have been the spot generally used for the Smithfield burnings, the face of the victim being turned to the east and to the great gate of St. Bartholomew, the prior of which was generally present on such occasions. Many bones were carried away as relics. Some strong oak posts were also dug up they had evidently been charred by fire, and in one of them was a staple with a ring attached to it. The place and its former history were too significant for any doubt to exist as to how they had been once used. Gazing upon them thoughtfully, one was forcibly reminded of the last words of Bishop Latimer to his friend Ridley, as they stood bound to the stake at Oxford: "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." And the good Latimer's words have come true.

Some years ago, on removing the foundations of some old houses, on the south side of Long Lane, a considerable quantity of human remains were discovered—skulls and other portions of the skeletons. This spot was understood to be the north-west corner of the burying-ground of the ancient priory of St. Bartholomew. The skulls were thick and grim-looking, with heavy, massive jaws, just as one would expect to find in those sturdy old monks, who were the schoolmen, artists, and sages of their time.


1859 Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair

Illustrated with a vignette title page, and eighty in-text engravings.

A history on the Bartholomew Fair, a summer Charter fair that was eminent in London, with the charter for the first fair granted by Henry I to fund the Priory of St Bartholomew.

The fair took place on the 24th August from 1133 to 1855.

Illustrated by the Brothers Dalziel.

Written by Henry Morley, an academic, who is known for being one of the earliest professors of English literature in Britain.

Prior owner's ink inscription to the recto to the front endpaper, 'Cole, from his friend, Robert A. Kinglake, on his leaving Eton, Easter 1860'. Kinglake was an English rower and barrister who was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was the president of Cambridge University Boat Club, and was admitted at the inner Temple in 1865.

Bookplate to the front pastedown.

Condition

In a full panelled calf fine binding. Externally, smart. Just a touch of rubbing to the extremities, and a few very minor marks to the boards and spine. Rear hinge is starting a little but remains firm. Bookplate to the front pastedown. Prior owner's ink inscription to the recto to the front endpaper. Internally, firmly bound. Pages are bright and clean, with just a few light spots to the first and last few pages.

Overall: Near Fine

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Bartholomew Fair

This is exactly as I remember Mary Stolz&aposs writing from reading when I was young. She writes very human stories with such a delicate and superior touch. The language in this novel is excellent.

This is a simple story of going to the fair, set in London in 1597. Several inhabitants of the city find themselves headed for the fair and what joins their stories is the want of a few hours&apos adventure, escape from the toils of their lives, and a nagging for completeness that they can&apost quite identify. T This is exactly as I remember Mary Stolz's writing from reading when I was young. She writes very human stories with such a delicate and superior touch. The language in this novel is excellent.

This is a simple story of going to the fair, set in London in 1597. Several inhabitants of the city find themselves headed for the fair and what joins their stories is the want of a few hours' adventure, escape from the toils of their lives, and a nagging for completeness that they can't quite identify. The crowd headed for the fair includes two boy scholars, an maltreated young mason's servant, a young vegetable maid of the royal palace, a puppeteer, a strangely charitable merchant, and the elegant, glittering, but aging, Queen Elizabeth.

I enjoyed the novel so much and really recommend it as a historical fiction tale to provide a little taste of Elizabethan times for elementary readers on up. The individual stories of the characters are thoughtful and full of feeling. Very nice book. . vairāk


Fair History

The Western Alaska Fair was started in Anchorage in 1924 and lasted until the 1929. M.D. Snodgrass of the Matanuska Valley was one of the organizers of that fair. Snodgrass, a retired experiment station employee, spent most of the last part of the 1920s recruiting settlers in the Matanuska Valley for the Alaska Railroad. He was also a founding member of the Northland Pioneer Grange No. 1 in Palmer. The Grange was established on April 26, 1935. Most of the 54 charter members were settlers who had been brought to Alaska by the Alaska Railroad.

Also in 1935, the U.S. government made the final, and successful, effort to populate the Matanuska Valley. A farming colony was established in the Valley, with the intent of opening up Alaska, providing food to the military in case of war, and giving families new opportunities in a new state full of potential – in other words, a fresh, new start. A total of 203 families from Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin and Oklahoma were selected. They arrived in the Valley in May 1935. (Four years later, 40 percent of the original colonists still remained.) During their first year, the colonists constructed their homes, cleared fields and built a community.

In March 1936, the Grange decided to attempt to establish a fair in Palmer. Snodgrass organized the Grange committees that planned the first fair, which was regarded by some as replacement for the recently defunct Western Alaska Fair in Anchorage.

The Northland Pioneer Grange No. 1 formed the Matanuska Valley Agricultural and Industrial Fair Assn., Inc. Newly arrived colonists soon were joining both the Grange and newly formed Fair. The group decided to hold a four-day Fair from September 4 through September 7. The Fair celebrated the 80 th anniversary of that original event in 2016.

The Grange raised money for the original Fair by selling stock within a few days, $1,200 had been raised. Admission was set at $1 for adults or $2 for a season pass admission was free for children under 8.

The first Fair was held in and around what is now the Matanuska-Susitna Borough building. The inaugural event coincided with the opening of the Knik River Bridge, which linked the city of Anchorage and the Valley by road for the first time. This, combined with the railroad, meant that people from all over the state could attend. That year’s events included the crowning of the Fair queen, a baby show, boxing matches, horse races, dances, a rodeo and baseball games. There were also hundreds of agricultural entries, including giant cabbages, grain, carrots, onions, celery, peas and other vegetables.

That same year, the Fair acquired a more permanent site from the Alaska Rural Rehabilitation Corporation (ARRC), where the Alaska Veterans and Pioneers Home is now located. In 1939, a then-record 1,600 visitors attended the Fair.

The giant cabbage contest tradition began in 1941, when the manager of the Alaska Railroad offered a $25 prize for the largest cabbage. Max Sherrod of the Valley took the prize with a 23 pounder.

The following year, “war jitters” contributed to a hiatus of the Fair, which lasted from 1942 to 1946. But the Fair was back in full swing in 1947, with 160 exhibitors. That number grew to 205 in 1948.

Due to expensive physical improvements, the Fair Association treasury dipped to $35 in 1949. The Fair needed some new attractions to draw crowds, and 1950 saw the first carnival rides at the Fair. An air show was added in 1951.

The new attractions worked and, by 1956, attendance had grown enough to justify the Fair Board’s petition to the Alaska Legislature for official designation as the Alaska State Fair. That year, Sen. Jalmar Kerttula presented a bill in the Legislature to designate the Alaska State Fair as the “official” state fair. Tanana Valley Fair in Fairbanks had also made the same request, so the Legislature decided to alternate between the two fairs. Tanana Valley Fair is the “official” state fair on even years and Alaska State Fair, Inc. is the “official” state fair on odd years.

On February 25, 1959, the Alaska State Fair, Inc. was incorporated as a private nonprofit corporation, replacing the Matanuska Valley Agricultural and Industrial Fair Association.

In 1960, the Fair celebrated its 25th anniversary. The crowds came out to celebrate and attendance reached 30,000. Attendees included presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, who came to the Fair to kick off his “New Frontiers” campaign.

In 1966, the Fair purchased 221 acres from Palmer Raceways Assn. and 1967 was the Fair’s first year in its present location. The total attendance that year reached 72,000.

The first 11-day Fair took place in 1968. In 1969, two years after moving to its new location, the Fair donated its land in Palmer for the Alaska Veterans and Pioneers Home.

The Fair’s long-standing relationship with the Mat-Su Miners baseball team (formerly the Valley Green Giants) began in 1975, when the Fair board was approached with a proposal to host a baseball team and field on the fairgrounds. In 1976, the Fair board made land available for the baseball field. Many people were involved in the field construction, but none more so than the Hermon brothers, who used personal time and equipment from their construction company to build the ball field. Therefore, the name Hermon Field was designated by the Fair board. In 2012, the Fair extended the agreement with the Mat-Su Miners baseball team for continued use through April 30, 2025.

The Fair’s log food booths were built in the early 1970s by local logsmith Jimmy Hitchcock. Some of the buildings from Palmer’s early days were moved to the fairgrounds starting in 1975 as part of a bicentennial project. The buildings included Colony Church/Theatre, which was built in 1936 – 1937, and served as one of the three original colony churches the Hesse-Smith House, which was built in 1935, and was one of five house plans offered to the colonists the MacNevin House, built in 1935 Wineck Barn, which represents the dominant style of barn built for the colonists and the Evan Jones House, built circa 1917 by the Jones family of the Jonesville Coal Mine. These buildings are still being utilized as Fair offices and for events year-round.

In 1976, three acres of the southwest corner of the fairgrounds became the temporary home for the Transportation Museum of Alaska. The museum, now named the Museum of Alaska Transportation and Industry, moved to its current location in Wasilla in 1992.

In the early 1980s, major upgrades to the Fair’s electrical, sewer and water systems were made. That same year, construction of the Farm Exhibits building began, and the earth that was removed for the building’s foundation was used to build the Borealis Theatre bowl, which hosts the annual Fair concert series. In 2016, concert-goers purchased a total of 26,294 tickets to the concert series.

Originally, the Farm Exhibits structure was designed to be a multi-purpose arena for Fair-time activities, as well as year-round, non-Fair use. Funding for the construction was requested from the state, and completion of the building was to be done in phases. However, after the phase one funding was received, the state had no available monies to complete the project, leaving just the skeleton of a building. In 2012, the Fair was awarded an $800,000 grant from the State of Alaska for much-needed Farm Exhibits roof improvements. The project, which included replacement of the entire 96,000-square-foot roof, as well as necessary structural upgrades for 110 MPH wind load, were completed in fall 2013.

Another significant change in the look of the fairgrounds occurred in 1997, when the construction of Pioneer Plaza and Raven Hall was completed. The Fair borrowed $2.1 million for this project, which was to be paid off in 2012. Due to frugal fiscal practices and additional revenue provided by sponsorships and concerts, the project was paid off ahead of schedule in 2009. Today, Pioneer Plaza offers ample room for displays and attractions during the Fair. Meanwhile, Raven Hall, originally built as a venue for commercial exhibits during the Fair, now provides an important venue for numerous year-round public and private events.

In 1998, the Fair was extended to three weeks for a 17-day event in recognition of the 1898 Gold Rush Centennial. It also briefly labeled itself “Expo 98” in recognition of the event. In 1999, the Fair reverted to its traditional 11-day schedule.

The Fair marked the first year of the new century by filling and burying a time capsule, which will be opened in 2036 in commemoration of the Fair’s 100 th anniversary.

Also in 2000, the Fair and the Alaska agricultural community established the Farm Family of the Year award to honor the work and contributions of hard-working farming families in Alaska. In 2016, the award went to the Plagerman family of Delta Junction.

A major development in the physical evolution of the fairgrounds took place in 2001, when the Fair purchased 40 acres of land containing the Rebarchek gravel pit. In 2002, the Fair also purchased the Rebarchek farmhouse and five additional acres of land. In 2003, the Fair traded the Rebarchek gravel pit for 40 acres of the adjacent Hamilton farm, through an agreement with Alaska Demolition. The swap was a way to buffer the fairgrounds from non-compatible land uses, such as residential and commercial development.

In 2004, after two years of construction, the Fair opened its new Green Gate and Railroad Depot on the south end of the fairgrounds. The development included new restrooms, covered areas, an electronic sign, and Glenn Highway Scenic Byway interpretive panels.

Changes to the fairgrounds continued in 2007, when the title to the Don Sheldon Events Center was transferred from the Mat-Su Borough to the Fair. A new roof, funded by a gracious grant from the Rasmuson Foundation, was put on the Events Center in 2011, allowing the upgraded facility to attract higher quality exhibits.
The beautiful gardens and colorful flowers that decorate the grounds have long been a mainstay of the Fair and a favorite amongst fairgoers, thanks in large part to the Fair’s long-time head gardener Becky Myrvold and her team. In 2007, the Fair’s handiwork received some well-deserved national recognition, when the makers of the Public Broadcasting Service program GardenSMART visited the Fair to film a 30-minute segment featuring the Fair’s herb, perennial and annual gardens, as well as highlighting the Fair’s famous giant vegetables. The segment also included a history of the Fair and its significance to the state.

The 2008 Fair coincided with Alaska’s 50th anniversary of statehood, and many events were designed to celebrate that momentous milestone. Among them was the unveiling of the official Alaska state quarter. On August 29 – the same day Alaska’s former Gov. Sarah Palin was named a U.S. vice presidential candidate – thousands of fairgoers gathered to witness the introduction of the State of Alaska quarter by Sen. Lisa Murkowski, Lt. Gov. Sean Parnell and officials from the United State Mint.

The Fair’s 2008 efforts earned it an award from the American Bus Association, which named the Fair one of the top 100 events in North America. This annual award recognizes 100 of the best events for group travel in the U.S. and Canada. Continuing its tradition of excellence, the Fair was named one of the best state fairs in America by Country Living magazine in 2012. The Alaska State Fair, which came in second behind only the Iowa State Fair, was touted for “most jaw-dropping produce.” The Fair continued its winning tradition, being named among the top 20 events and festivals by Top Events USA in 2014. The Fair was also a contender for “best state fair” in USA TODAY’s 2015 10Best Readers’ Choice travel award contest. And the Fair brought home a number of awards from the 2016 International Association of Fairs and Expositions convention, including first place in the commemorative poster category.

2010 marked the first year of the Fair’s scholarship program. Three $1,000 scholarships were awarded to Mat-Su Valley students that year. In 2016, the Fair awarded $4,250 in scholarships to five Alaska high school students. The Fair continues to seek opportunities to increase scholarship funding. In 2012, in partnership with the Palmer Rotary, the Fair supported the first-ever Cabbage Classic Lottery, which gave fairgoers the chance to guess the weight of the winning entry in the Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off while raising money for Rotary and Fair scholarship programs. The Cabbage Classic continued in 2016, bringing in $390 for Fair scholarships.

In 2016, the Fair undertook several additional creative fundraising efforts benefiting the Fair scholarship fund. These efforts included the raffle of an 80 th birthday commemorative Fair quilt, which featured artwork designed by Alaska artist Ruth Hulbert and was sewn by local quilter Kathy Rockey. The raffle, won by Lorraine Stotts, brought in $3,990 for Fair scholarships. The Concert Kick-Off Party, a fundraising event held in April, raised another $4,000 for Fair scholarships.

In 2011, the Fair’s Flower Exhibits building (previously the Livestock Barn and then the Fair Exchange) became the Kid Zone, offering fun, educational children’s activities as well as the Children’s Maze, a spectacular garden maze for young children featuring different themes every year. Meanwhile, the Flowers Exhibits department moved to a new area created especially for them in the Farm Exhibits building.

In 2012, Palmer farmer Scott Robb set a new record for the world’s heaviest cabbage with his 138.25-pound entry into the Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off, besting Wasilla grower Steve Hubacek’s 2009 world-record cabbage, which weighed in at 127 pounds. At the 21 st annual Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off in 2016, repeat champion Steve Hubacek took first place with his 83.4-pound entry.

The 2014 Fair featured several significant expansions/improvements, including new paved walkways in the carnival area, upgraded and expanded sewer system, new Farm Exhibits roof, and the opening of The Gathering Place, a new area of the fairgrounds dedicated to experiencing Alaska’s rich Native cultures and traditions. In 2015, all regions of Alaska were represented at The Gathering Place, which featured 38 Alaska Native dance group performances, 23 Alaska Native artisans, 13 storytelling concerts, 10 Alaska Native games demonstrations, and nine music concerts. Dena’ – People’s Stage, the latest feature of The Gathering Place, opened at the 2016 Fair. The 1,000-square-foot permanent stage now offers a dedicated performance area for Alaska Native entertainment at the Fair.

To better understand and share the value the Fair provides to the state, the Fair undertook an economic impact study with assistance from the McDowell Group in 2014. The final report showed a total economic impact of $23 million.

Part of the Fair’s economic impact on the state stems from its growth from a once-a-year event to a year-round hub for the community to gather, learn and enjoy. In 2014, the Scottish Highland Games moved their annual summertime event to the fairgrounds. The Fair was honored to host the International Highland Games Foundation World Heavy Events Championships in 2016. The popular Mighty Matanuska Brewfest has been held at the fairgrounds each fall for the past nine years. And in 2015 and 2016, the Fair hosted “Bright up the Night,” a free, drive-through light display celebrating the holiday season.

In November 2014, the Fair and Alaska Farmland Trust signed an agreement permanently protecting 36.5 acres of Fair-owned property as farmland. The Fair supported the agreement with a contribution valued at $250,000. Farmland Palooza, an event celebrating the agreement, took place May 16, 2015 at the property, located next to the former Hamilton Dairy Farm across South Inner Springer Loop from the fairgrounds.

The 4-H Junior Market Livestock Auction marked its 41 st year at the Fair in 2016, bringing in $214,312.50 and setting a new record for the event. The 4-H youth participants, many of whom raised their animals from birth, receive the majority of the proceeds, which they often pour back into raising an animal for the next year’s auction.

In 2016, a total of 8,719 exhibit entries came in from across the state, as well as 33 from outside Alaska. The entries resulted in six new state records, including the one set by Dale Marshall at the 2016 Midnight Sun Great Pumpkin Weigh-Off. After pursuing the state record for five years, Dale finally broke it with his 1,469-pound entry, beating the previous state pumpkin record by 180 pounds.

In late 2015, the Fair signed a long-term agreement with Golden Wheel Amusements. The agreement, which coincided with the Fair’s 80 th birthday and Golden Wheel Amusements 50 th anniversary in Alaska, underscored the organizations’ continuing commitment to introducing new rides and capital improvements in the carnival area at the fairgrounds. Fairgoers enjoyed four new rides at the 2016 carnival, including Zombie Mansion, Warhawk, Kiddie Swing, and The Rock.

Over the years, Fair attendance has continued its upward trend. During the 18-day Fair in 1998, a record 361,804 people enjoyed the festivities. The Fair set another record in 2003, with 312,419 visitors attending the Fair over a 12-day period. Estimated attendance at the 2016 Fair was 293,424.

Throughout its history, the Fair has demonstrated a commitment to the health and wellbeing of the community. For example, in 2016, the Fair became the very first state fair in the United States to go smoke-free for the entire run of the event. The Fair was honored with the American Lung Association’s 2016 Breathe Easy Champion Award for this landmark move. And through its award-winning recycling program, established in 2002, Fair volunteers diverted 34,829 pounds of recyclables from the landfill last year alone!

While the Fair has certainly come a long way since the first event in 1936, the spirit of the Fair remains relatively constant. Visitors do enjoy a wider range of events, such as diverse, big-name entertainers and carnival rides, but the heart of the Fair still centers on the things the original colonists started with – agriculture, produce, lots of food, flowers, friends and family, and an old-fashioned, good time.


Bartholomew Fair Background

These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own.

Written by Timothy Sexton

Interestingly, the very first performance of Ben Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair was on Halloween. Of course, it is imperative to realize that Halloween wasn’t the same in 1614 as it is today. Even so, Ben Jonson—who briefly enjoyed stature as a playwright exceeding his contemporary Shakespeare—might well have spent the rest of his life haunted by the mounting of his Altmanesque comedy following the misadventures and assorted complications of a variety of idiosyncratic characters during the celebrated Smithfield Fair commemorating St. Bartholomew’s Day? What was so potentially frightful about this performance?

Well, it wasn’t the performance so much as it was the play itself. The conventional wisdom of most scholars, academics and assorted other experts on these type of things is that Jonson never again attained the heights of artistry of this or any other of his most highly regarded works. From October 31, 1614 onward, in other things, it was all downhill.

The comparison of Bartholomew Fair to a Robert Altman film like MASH, A Wedding or—especially—Nešvila is apt. What Ben Jonson does in this play is situate a memorable cast of characters that includes a Barney Fife-esque justice of the peace, balladeers, pickpockets, fortune-hunting bounders, pious Puritans and pretty much every other type of con artist and carny scammer that usually show up where such oblivious crowds congregate. The fair becomes a microcosm, in other words, and in that respect truly can be said to be not at all far removed from the 4077th mobile army surgical hospital or the commingling of the various arms of the political and entertainment scene in Nashville during a specific time and place in the American election cycle. All those exaggerated character types come together as a representatives of something much bigger: they are the inhabitants of the city of London during the Renaissance the manner in which they interact with each other and their stories become intertwined all exist to serve the very specific purpose of allowing Ben Jonson to indulge his talent for satirically stripping away the pretenses of all their moral and ethical shortcomings.

Kopš Bartholomew Fair is a comedy, of course, the fair winds down with nobody suffering particularly because they all share collectively in the folly of being human.

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