Raksti

Eskadronas Nr.208 personāla paraksti

Eskadronas Nr.208 personāla paraksti


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Eskadronas Nr.208 personāla paraksti

Eskadras Nr. 208 personāla paraksti, iespējams, 1941. gada laikā, tika parakstīti ap eskadras žetonu.

Liels paldies Džonam Vitfordam par šīs fotogrāfijas nosūtīšanu.


Amerikas Savienoto Valstu Jūras spēku lidmašīnu eskadronu saraksts

Tas ir aktīvo ASV jūras spēku lidmašīnu eskadronu saraksts. Deaktivizēts vai atcelts eskadras ir uzskaitītas neaktīvo ASV jūras spēku lidmašīnu eskadronu sarakstā.

Jūras spēku lidmašīnu eskadras sastāv no vairākām lidmašīnām (no aptuveni četriem līdz pat apmēram duci), virsniekiem, kas ar tām lido, virsniekiem un jūrniekiem, kas tos uztur, un administratīvā atbalsta virsniekiem un jūrniekiem. Dažas no šajā rakstā uzskaitītajām vienībām tehniski nav "eskadriles", taču tās visas zināmā mērā ekspluatē ASV Jūras spēku lidmašīnas.

Eskadras un to vēsture ir uzskaitītas sadaļā Amerikas jūras aviācijas eskadronu vārdnīca (DANAS).


Pirmais pasaules karš

Eskadra tika izveidota kā daļa no Karaliskā Jūras gaisa dienesta 1916. gada 25. oktobrī [10] [11] Dunkerkā. Nr.8 (Jūras spēku) eskadra. Iepriekšējās dienās vienība lidoja ar Sopwith Pups, 1½ Strutters un Nieuport Scouts. Vēlāk Pirmajā pasaules karā tas atkal tika aprīkots ar Sopwith Camels un tika piešķirts artilērijas noteikšanai. Eskadra neilgi atgriezās Apvienotajā Karalistē, pirms tika nosūtīta atpakaļ uz Franciju, lai stātos pretī Vācijas ofensīvai. Kamēr Francijā RAF iznīcināja ievērojamu skaitu eskadriļai piederošu kamieļu, lai vācieši viņus neuzņemtu viņu virzīšanās laikā. Kad 1918. gada 1. aprīlī tika izveidoti Karaliskie gaisa spēki, vienība tika pārdēvēta par 208. eskadronu RAF. Pēc kara beigām 208 eskadrona palika okupācijas karaspēkā līdz 1919. gada augustam, kad 1919. gada 7. novembrī Netheravonā tā atkal atgriezās Apvienotajā Karalistē izformēšanai. [12]

Kara laikā eskadra pretendēja uz 298 uzvarām. Eskadrā bija dienējuši divdesmit pieci dūži. Ievērojami no tiem bija Reginald Soar, Ronald Thornley un James White. [13]

Starpšūnu

Eskadra 1920. gada 1. februārī reformēja RAF Ismailia Ēģiptē, pārnumurējot Nr. 113 eskadronu RAF. [14] Sākumā tas bija aprīkots ar RE8 un no 1920. gada novembra līdz 1930. gada maijam - ar Bristoles iznīcinātājiem. Starpkaru gadi nekādā ziņā nebija klusi, 1922. gada septembrī eskadriļa Čanakas krīzes laikā uz gadu tika nosūtīta uz Turciju, izvietojoties San Stefano, kas ir daļa no Stambulas Bakırköy rajona Turcijā. [14] Pēc konflikta 208 eskadra atgriezās Ēģiptē un 1930. gadā ieguva Armstronga Vitvorta atlanta lidmašīnas, lai aizstātu vecos Bristoles iznīcinātājus. Savukārt atlantus pēc pieciem gadiem nomainīja Audaxes un vienam lidojumam - dēmoni. Tieši pirms Otrā pasaules kara uzliesmojuma, 1939. gada janvārī, tie piekāpās Vestlendas Lisandrai. [15]

Otrais pasaules karš

Nr. 208 Eskadra vēl bija izvietota Ēģiptē, sākoties Otrajam pasaules karam. Tā pievienojās kara centieniem 1940. gada vidū, lidojot ar Westland Lysander izlūkošanas lidmašīnām un Hawker Hurricane kaujiniekiem, pildot armijas sadarbības pienākumus Ziemeļāfrikas kampaņā [16] un Grieķijas 1941. gada kampaņā. Kara laikā tajā bija iekļauts ievērojams skaits Austrālijas karalisko Gaisa spēku un Dienvidāfrikas gaisa spēku personāls kopā ar citām tautībām. Starp eskadronas dalībniekiem šajā laikā bija Roberts Līts-Makgregors, kurš tika notriekts vairāk nekā vienu reizi, reiz beidzoties ar taksometru caur mīnu lauku, taču viņam neizdevās iedarbināt mīnas. [17]

Vēlāk vienība tika izvietota Palestīnā, pirms atgriešanās Ziemeļāfrikā. Tas īslaicīgi pārvērtās par Kērtisu Tomahauku, bet 1943. gada beigās saņēma Supermarine Spitfires un lidoja ar tiem atlikušajā kara laikā. Kopš 1944. gada tā piedalījās Itālijas kampaņā.

Pēc Otrā pasaules kara

Drīz pēc kara 208 eskadra pārcēlās uz Palestīnu, kur bija iesaistīta operācijās pret Ēģiptes gaisa spēkiem. 1948. gadā eskadra pārcēlās uz Ēģiptes kanāla zonu. Tajā notika darbība Izraēlas Neatkarības karā, cīņā ar Izraēlas gaisa spēku lidmašīnām zaudējot četrus Spitfires (tostarp arī Spitfires).

Pēdējā oficiāli reģistrētā "Air to Air" iznīcinātāja pilota nogalināšana (lodes tikai bez vadības sistēmām) notika 1948. gada 22. maijā, pulksten 09:30 divi Ēģiptes Spitfire LF.9s nolēma sarīkot trešo uzbrukumu Ramat David. Šoreiz Fg Off Tim McElhaw un Fg Off Hully no 208 Squadron bija pārņēmuši pastāvīgo patruļu. Fg Off McElhaw, lidojot ar Spitfire FR.18 TZ228, izdevās pārtvert un notriekt abus LF.9. [18]


Saturs

Fona rediģēšana

Lidmašīna sākotnēji tika iecerēta 60. gadu sākumā, neformāli sadarbojoties W.H. Bekets un pulkvedis K.P. Raiss, ASV jūras kājnieku korpuss, kurš tikās Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, Kalifornijā, un kurš arī dzīvoja netālu viens no otra. Sākotnējā koncepcija bija izturīga, vienkārša, tuvu gaisa atbalsta lidmašīna, kas integrēta ar operācijām uz zemes. Tajā laikā ASV armija vēl eksperimentēja ar bruņotiem helikopteriem, un ASV gaisa spēki nebija ieinteresēti ciešā gaisa atbalstā.

Koncepcijas lidmašīnai bija jādarbojas no lietderīgām gaisa spēku bāzēm uz priekšu, izmantojot ceļus kā skrejceļus. Ātrumam bija jābūt no ļoti lēnas līdz vidējai zemskaņas skaitam, ar daudz ilgāku pavadīšanas laiku nekā tīrai strūklai. Efektīvi turbopropelleru dzinēji sniegtu labāku veiktspēju nekā virzuļdzinēji. Ieroči bija jāuzstāda uz viduslīnijas, lai panāktu efektīvu nesakārtotu mērķēšanu. Izgudrotāji deva priekšroku ieročiem, piemēram, pašlādējošām šaujamieročiem, ar kuriem varēja piegādāt mērķtiecīgus sprādzienbīstamus lādiņus ar mazāku atsitienu nekā lielgabaliem un mazāku vienas kārtas svaru nekā raķetes. Lidmašīnas korpuss bija paredzēts tā, lai izvairītos no sprādziena aizmugurē.

Bekets un Raiss izstrādāja pamata platformu, kas atbilst šīm prasībām, pēc tam garāžā mēģināja izveidot stikla šķiedras prototipu. Šie centieni radīja entuziastiskus atbalstītājus un neformālu brošūru, kurā aprakstīta koncepcija. W.H. Bekets, kurš bija atvaļinājies no jūras kājnieku korpusa, devās strādāt uz Ziemeļamerikas aviāciju, lai pārdotu lidmašīnu.

STOL militārā definīcija (šķērslis no 500 pēdām līdz 50 pēdām) ļauj pacelties un nolaisties lielākajā daļā teritoriju, kurās varētu tikt ierobežots karš. Turklāt lidmašīna tika veidota tā, lai izmantotu ceļus, lai ekspluatācija būtu iespējama pat džungļu zonās, kur izcirtumu ir maz. Tā rezultātā spārnu platums bija ierobežots līdz divdesmit pēdām, un darbam no ceļiem tika nodrošināta smaga piekare ar šasiju ar 6,5 pēdu protektoru. Peldēšanas operācijai bija jābūt iespējamai. [2]. ir diezgan iespējams izstrādāt dažādas sastāvdaļas tā, lai tās varētu viegli izjaukt un uzglabāt kastē, kas ietilptu 6 × 6 kravas automašīnas gultā kopā ar aprīkojumu, kas nepieciešams atkārtotai montāžai uz lauka. Tādējādi to varētu transportēt ar amfībijas kuģiem, un to var pacelt vai izkraut krastā ar 6 × 6 kravas automašīnu. [3]

Vieglie bruņotie izlūkošanas lidaparāti Rediģēt

ASV Jūras spēki, Gaisa spēki un armija apstiprināja vieglu bruņotu izlūkošanas lidaparātu (LARA) "trīs pakalpojumu" specifikāciju, un tā tika izdota 1963. gada beigās. LARA prasība balstījās uz vajadzību pēc jauna tipa " džungļu kaujas "daudzpusīgas vieglas uzbrukuma un novērošanas lidmašīnas. Esošās militārās lidmašīnas novērošanas lomā, piemēram, putnu suns Cessna O-1 un Cessna O-2 Skymaster, tika uztvertas kā novecojušas, ar pārāk lēnu ātrumu un pārāk mazu kravnesību šai elastīgajai lomai.

Specifikācija paredzēja divu dzinēju divu cilvēku lidmašīnu, kas varētu pārvadāt vismaz 2400 mārciņas (1100 kg) kravas, sešus izpletņlēcējus vai nestuves, kā arī uzsvērtu +8 un –3 g (pamata akrobātiskā spēja). Tam bija jāspēj darboties arī no lidmašīnas pārvadātāja, lidot vismaz 350 jūdzes stundā (560 km/h), pacelties 800 pēdu (240 m) attālumā un pārvērsties par abinieku. Bija jānes dažādi bruņojumi, ieskaitot četrus 7,62 mm (0,300 collas) ložmetējus ar 2000 šāvieniem, kā arī ārējos ieročus, ieskaitot ieroča kapuci ar 20 mm (0,79 collu) elektrisko lielgabalu M197 un AIM-9 Sidewinder gaiss-gaiss raķetes. .

Tika iesniegti vienpadsmit priekšlikumi, tai skaitā: Grummana modeļa 134R tandēma sēdvieta jau esošajai ASV armijai OV-1 Mohawk (ASV jūras korpuss izstājās no Mohawk programmas 1958. gadā), Goodyear GA 39, Beechcraft PD-183, Douglas D-855, Convair Model 48 Charger, Helio 1320, Lockheed CL-760, Martin dizains un Ziemeļamerikas aviācija/Rockwell NA-300.

1964. gada augustā tika izvēlēts NA-300. 1964. gada oktobrī tika izsniegts līgums par septiņiem lidmašīnu prototipiem. Convair protestēja pret šo lēmumu un jebkurā gadījumā uzbūvēja modeļa 48 lādētāja mazo spārnu prototipu, kas pirmo reizi lidoja 1964. gada 29. novembrī. Šī bija arī divu uzplaukumu lidmašīna, kurai bija līdzīgs izkārtojums OV-10. Lādētājs, lai gan dažos aspektos spēja pārspēt OV-10, 1965. gada 19. oktobrī avarēja pēc 196 testa lidojumiem. Convair vēlāk izstājās no strīdiem.

1965. gada 16. jūlijā "Bronco" sāka lidot lādētāja testa programmas vidū un kļuva par vienu no vadošajiem nemiernieku (COIN) lidmašīnām nākamajos 30 gados. Tas nesasniedza Rice L2 VMA koncepciju, jo DoD uzstāja uz 12 pēdu (40 pēdas) gariem spārniem, kas padarīja to atkarīgu no gaisa bāzēm. Rīsi secina:

Sākotnējā koncepcija par mazu, vienkāršu lidmašīnu, kas varētu darboties tuvu atbalstītajam karaspēkam, bija gandrīz pilnībā izņemta no iekšas. Spēja darboties no ceļiem (20 pēdu platums un 6,5 protektors) tika ignorēta, un veiktspēju apdraudēja īsais 30 pēdu laidums, papildu 1000 mārciņas neapstrādātam lauka šasijai un vēl 1000 mārciņas elektronikas. Vieglajai, vienkāršajai lidmašīnai bija arī pilns instrumentu komplekts, izmešanas sēdekļi un septiņas ārējās veikalu stacijas. Sauszemes munīcijas un bumbas līča izmantošanas koncepcija tika ignorēta, lai gan tajā bija paredzēti četri M60 [vidēja] ložmetēji. Neskatoties uz šo pieaugumu (gandrīz divreiz lielāks par mūsu mājas lielumu un svaru), YOV-10 joprojām bija liels potenciāls. Tas nesasniegtu integrācijas priekšrocības ar zemes manevra shēmu, taču snieguma aploksnes zemākajā galā tam bija iespējas, kas joprojām bija vērtīgas un unikālas. [4]

Bronco veica novērošanu, gaisa vadību uz priekšu, helikopteru eskortu, bruņotu izlūkošanu, vieglu gaisa transportu un ierobežotu uzbrukumu uz zemes. Bronco ir arī veicis radioloģisko izlūkošanu no gaisa, taktisko gaisa novērošanu, artilērijas un jūras spēku šaušanas atklāšanu, taktisko gaisa atbalsta operāciju kontroli gaisā un frontālās līnijas, zema līmeņa aerofotografēšanu. Prototips Vjetnamā, kas paredzēts dūmu izmešanai, bija ārkārtīgi veiksmīgs, vērtētāji to paturēja ekspluatācijā vairākus mēnešus un tika izlaists tikai negribīgi, un netika nopirkts, jo tika uztverts misijas trūkums. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

OV-10 ir centrālā lāpstiņa, kurā ir piloti un krava, un divas stieņi ar diviem turbopropelleru dzinējiem. Lidaparāta vizuāli atšķirīgā iezīme ir divu stieņu kombinācija ar horizontālo stabilizatoru, kas tos savieno.

Lidmašīnas konstrukcija atbalstīja efektīvas darbības no bāzēm uz priekšu. OV-10 var veikt īsas pacelšanās un nosēšanās, tostarp lidmašīnu pārvadātājos un liela klāja amfībijas uzbrukuma kuģos [5], neizmantojot katapultas vai aizturot vadus. Turklāt OV-10 bija paredzēts pacelšanās un nolaišanās uz neuzlabotām vietām. Remontu var veikt ar parastajiem instrumentiem. Dzinēju iedarbināšanai nebija nepieciešama zemes iekārta. Vajadzības gadījumā dzinēji varētu darboties ar automobiļu degvielu ar augstu oktānskaitli, tikai nedaudz zaudējot jaudu. [6]

Lidmašīnai bija atsaucīga vadāmība, un tā varēja lidot 5 1/2 stundas ar ārējām degvielas tvertnēm. [7] Pilota kabīnē bija ārkārtīgi laba redzamība tandēma pilotam un otrajam pilotam, ko nodrošināja aptveroša "siltumnīca", kas bija platāka par fizelāžu. Ziemeļamerikas Rockwell pielāgotie izmešanas sēdekļi bija standarta, [8] ar daudziem veiksmīgiem izmešanas gadījumiem servisa laikā. [9] Ja otrais sēdeklis ir noņemts, tas var pārvadāt 1500 kilogramus kravas, piecus izpletņlēcējus vai divus metiena pacientus un pavadoni. Tukšs svars bija 6969 mārciņas (3161 kg). Normāls ekspluatācijas svars ar divām apkalpēm bija 9,908 mārciņas (4494 kg). Maksimālais pacelšanās svars bija 14 446 mārciņas (6553 kg).

Fizelāžas apakšdaļā bija sponsoļi vai "stublāju spārni", kas uzlaboja lidojuma veiktspēju, samazinot aerodinamisko pretestību zem fizelāžas. Sponsoni tika uzstādīti horizontāli uz prototipa. Pārbaude izraisīja to pārveidošanu sērijveida lidmašīnām, un sponsoru leņķis leņķī pret ražošanas modeļiem nodrošināja to, ka sponsori, kas tika pārvadāti, tika tīri nolaisti. Parasti uz sponsoriem tika nēsāti četri 7,62 mm (.308 collas) M60C ložmetēji ar M60C, kuriem varēja piekļūt caur lielu uz priekšu atveramu lūku katra sponsora augšpusē. Sponsoriem bija arī četri plaukti bumbu, pāķu vai degvielas pārvadāšanai. Dzinēju piekaramie spārni satur divus papildu plauktus, vienu katrā pusē.

Rack bruņojums Vjetnamas karā parasti bija septiņu šāvienu 2,75 collu (70 mm) raķešu pākstis ar baltiem fosfora marķieriem vai sprādzienbīstamas raķetes, vai 5 collu (127 mm) četru šāvienu Zuni raķešu pāksti. Tika pārvadātas arī bumbas, ADSIDS gaisa padeves/para-nomesti bez uzraudzības seismiski sensori, Mk-6 kaujas lauka apgaismojuma uzliesmojumi un citi veikali. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Ekspluatācijas pieredze parādīja dažus OV-10 konstrukcijas trūkumus. Tas bija ievērojami nepietiekams, kas veicināja avārijas Vjetnamā slīpā reljefā, jo piloti nevarēja uzkāpt pietiekami ātri. [7] Lai gan specifikācijās teikts, ka lidmašīna varētu sasniegt 26 000 pēdas (7900 m), Vjetnamā lidmašīna varētu sasniegt tikai 18 000 pēdas (5500 m). Tāpat neviens OV-10 pilots neizdzīvoja, nogāžot lidmašīnu. [6]

OV-10 kalpoja ASV gaisa spēkos, ASV jūras korpusā un ASV jūras spēkos, kā arī daudzu citu valstu dienestā. Kopumā Vjetnamas kara laikā visu iemeslu dēļ tika zaudēts 81 OV-10 Broncos, Gaisa spēkiem zaudējot 64, Jūras spēkiem 7 un jūras kājniekiem 10. [10]

ASV jūras korpusa rediģēšana

OV-10 pirmo reizi iegādājās ASV jūras korpuss. Katrā no divām jūras korpusa novērošanas eskadrālēm (ar nosaukumu VMO) bija 18 lidmašīnas-deviņas OV-10A un deviņas OV-10Ds nakts novērošanas lidmašīnas. Tika izveidota arī Jūras gaisa rezervju novērošanas eskadra. OV-10 darbojās kā uz priekšu vērsts gaisa kuģu kontrolieris un beidzot tika pakāpeniski izslēgts no jūras korpusa 1995. gadā pēc tam, kad tika pieņemts darbā operācijā Tuksneša vētra, kurā arī ASV spēki zaudēja pēdējos OV-10. Starp šiem zaudējumiem tika notriekti divi USMC OV-10, jo nebija efektīvu infrasarkano staru pretpasākumu. Tika arī uzskatīts, ka lēnais ātrums padara to neaizsargātāku pret pretgaisa ieročiem. [11] Priekšējā gaisa vadība pārsvarā tika nodota zemes vienībām ar lāzera apzīmējumiem un digitālajiem radioaparātiem (GFAC) un divu sēdekļu F/A-18D Hornet (FAC (A) s). Lielākā daļa operatīvo Broncos tika nodota ASV civilajām pārvaldes iestādēm, bet daļa tika pārdota citām valstīm.

ASV Jūras spēku korpusa YOV-10D nakts novērošanas šaušanas sistēmas (NOGS) programma pārveidoja divus OV-10A (BuNo 155395 un BuNo 155396), lai iekļautu infrasarkano staru (FLIR) sensoru, lāzera mērķa apzīmējumu un 20 mm (.79 collas) ) XM197 lielgabals ir pavirzīts uz FLIR mērķa punktu. NOGS guva panākumus Vjetnamā, taču līdzekļi, lai pārveidotu vairāk lidmašīnu, netika apstiprināti. NOGS pārtapa par NOS OV-10D, kas ietvēra lāzera apzīmējumu, bet ne pistoli.

ASV gaisa spēku rediģēšana

USAF iegādājās Bronco galvenokārt kā FAC lidmašīnu. Pirmās kaujas USAF OV-10As ieradās Vjetnamā 1968. gada 31. jūlijā lidmašīnas ekspluatācijas pārbaudes un novērtēšanas "Operation Combat Bronco" ietvaros. Šīs izmēģinājuma lidmašīnas tika pievienotas 19. taktiskās gaisa atbalsta eskadriļai, 504. taktiskās gaisa atbalsta grupai Bien Hoa aviācijas bāzē Vjetnamas dienvidos. Pārbaudes lomas ietvēra visu uzdevumu klāstu, kas pēc tam tika piešķirts FAC lidmašīnām, ieskaitot trieciena virzienu dienā un naktī, bruņumašīnas virzienu, bumbas bojājumu novērtējumu, vizuālo izlūkošanu, gaisa artilērijas virzienu un kā pavadoni lidmašīnām, kas iesaistītas operācijā Ranch Hand. [12] Lidmašīnas spēja radīt dūmus iekšēji tika izmantota trieciena virzienam, un "četros īpašos gadījumos, kad bija slikta redzamība, dūmus redzēja trieciena gaisa kuģu apkalpes, pirms [OV-10A] [tika] konstatēts." [13] Operācija Combat Bronco beidzās 1968. gada 30. oktobrī.

Pēc kaujas Bronco beigām USAF sāka izvietot lielākus skaitļus 19. TASS (Bien Hoa), 20. TASS (Da Nang Air Base) un misijās ārpus valsts uz 23. TASS (Nakhom Phanom Taizemē) . 23. TASS veica operāciju Igloo White, operāciju Prairie Fire/Daniel Boone un citas īpašo operāciju misijas. [14]

Laikā no 1968. līdz 1971. gadam 26 piloti no Austrālijas Karaliskajiem gaisa spēkiem (RAAF) un Jaunzēlandes Karaliskajiem gaisa spēkiem (RNZAF) lidoja ar OV-10A, izmantojot FAC, bet bija piesaistīti USAF eskadroniem. 19. TASS uzņēma 13 RAAF pilotus un trīs no RNZAF, vēl septiņi RAAF piloti un trīs no RNZAF tika norīkoti 20. TASS. (Līdz ar to Austrālijas Kara memoriāls ir ieguvis OV-10A 67-14639, ar kuru lidoja daži no šiem pilotiem.) [15]

No 1969. gada aprīļa līdz jūnijam ASVF veica operatīvās mācības ar nosaukumu Miglainais Bronko Dienvidvjetnamas III korpusa taktiskajā zonā, lai novērtētu OV-10A kā viegla trieciena lidmašīnas sniegumu. Rezultāti bija pozitīvi, un no 1969. gada oktobra visi USAF OV-10A bija jāapbruņo ar iekšējiem 30,8 collu (7,62 mm) M60C ložmetējiem, kas parasti tika atstāti novārtā Combat Bronco novērtējumu un turpmākās izvietošanas laikā. Pret zemes mērķiem tika atļauts izmantot arī 70 mm lielas sprādzienbīstamas raķetes. [16]

1971. gadā 23.d TASS OV-10A Broncos saņēma izmaiņas projekta ietvaros Pave Nail. Šīs izmaiņas, ko veica LTV Electrosystems 1970. gadā, galvenokārt iekļāva Pave Spot mērķa lāzera apzīmēšanas pods, kā arī specializēts nakts periskops (aizstājot sākotnējās zvaigžņu gaismas darbības jomas, kas tika izmantotas nakts operācijām) un LORAN aprīkojums. Izsaukuma zīme Nagu bija šīs eskadras radio rokturis. Šīs lidmašīnas atbalstīja karaspēka un krājumu aizliegšanu Hošiminas takā, izgaismojot mērķus lāzervadāmām bumbām, kuras nometa McDonnell F-4 Phantom II. [17] Pēc 1974. gada šīs lidmašīnas tika pārveidotas par nemainītu OV-10A standartu. [18]

Vismaz 157 OV-10A tika nogādāti ASVF pirms ražošanas beigām 1969. gada aprīlī. Kara laikā visu iemeslu dēļ USAF zaudēja 64 OV-10 Broncos. [10] Astoņdesmito gadu beigās USAF sāka aizstāt savus OV-10 ar OA-37B un OA-10A lidmašīnām. Atšķirībā no jūras korpusa, ASVF neizvietoja Bronko Tuvajos Austrumos, reaģējot uz Irākas iebrukumu Kuveitā, jo uzskatīja, ka OV-10 ir pārāk neaizsargāts. Pēdējās divas USAF eskadras, kas aprīkotas ar Bronco, 19. un 21. taktisko gaisa atbalsta eskadriļu (TASS), 1991. gada 1. septembrī atstāja OV-10. [19] [20]

2012. gadā tika piešķirti 20 miljoni ASV dolāru, lai aktivizētu divu OV-10 eksperimentālo vienību, kas iegūta no NASA un Valsts departamenta. Sākot ar 2015. gada maiju, šīs lidmašīnas tika izvietotas, lai atbalstītu operācijas Inherent Resolve lidojošās kaujas misijas virs Irākas un Sīrijas, 82 dienu laikā veicot vairāk nekā 120 kaujas lidojumus. Tiek lēsts, ka viņi sniedza ciešu gaisa atbalstu īpašo spēku misijām. Eksperiments beidzās apmierinoši, taču Gaisa spēku pārstāvis paziņoja, ka joprojām ir maz ticams, ka viņi ieguldīs līdzekļus OV-10 atkārtotā aktivizēšanā, jo rodas papildu izmaksas par papildu lidmašīnas tipa ekspluatāciju. [21] [22]

ASV Jūras spēku rediģēšana

ASV Jūras spēki 1969. gada 3. janvārī izveidoja ceturto vieglā uzbrukuma eskadriļu (VAL-4), "Melnos ponijus", un Vjetnamā darbojās no 1969. gada aprīļa līdz 1972. gada aprīlim. Jūras spēki izmantoja Bronco OV-10A kā vieglu sauszemes uzbrukuma lidmašīnu. , ienaidnieka loģistikas aizliegšanai un jūras kājnieku, SEAL un jūras upju spēku kuģu uguns atbalstam. [23] Šai lomai tas izdevās, lai gan ASV Jūras spēki Vjetnamas kara laikā dažādu iemeslu dēļ zaudēja septiņus OV-10. [10] Izņemot OV-10 flotes nomaiņas mācības, kas tika veiktas sadarbībā ar Gaisa pretzemūdeņu eskadriļu četrdesmit vienu (VS-41) NAS ziemeļu salā, Kalifornijā, VAL-4 bija vienīgā eskadra ASV jūras spēkos, kas jebkad izmantoja OV- 10, un tas tika pārtraukts neilgi pēc Vjetnamas kara beigām. VAL-4 izdzīvojušie OV-10 vēlāk tika pārvietoti uz Jūras korpusu. [24]

Vismaz divi Broncos tika izmantoti kā testa gultas pagājušā gadsimta septiņdesmitajos gados Jūras gaisa testa centrā (NATC) NAS Patuxent upē, Merilendā.

Divas OV-10 tika novērtētas īpašām operācijām [25], un USMC aizdeva 18 lidmašīnas ekspluatācijai VAL-4 Vjetnamā. [ nepieciešams skaidrojums ]

2015. gadā divi OV-10G tika norīkoti vieglu uzbrukumu operācijām Irākā saskaņā ar programmu "Combat Dragon II" un pabeidza 120 misijas. [26] [27]

Gadā pirmā no divām bijušajām VAL-4 lidmašīnām atgriezās lidojumā ar OV-10 eskadriļu, Čīno, Kalifornijā. Biroja numuri 155493 “Svētais terors” un 155474 “Baltais zibens”. California Aerofab veica plašus restaurācijas darbus, kas ilga vairāk nekā 18 mēnešus, un 493 atgriezās lidojumā, un 474 lidos līdz 2020. gadam. [28]

Kolumbija Rediģēt

1991. gadā USAF nodrošināja Kolumbijas gaisa spēkus ar 12 OV-10A. Vēlāk tika iegādāti arī trīs bijušie USMC A modeļi, lai sniegtu atbalstu detaļām. Kolumbija ekspluatē lidmašīnu COIN lomā pret aktīvu nemiernieku. Vismaz viena lidmašīna ir zaudēta kaujā. [29] Atlikušie OV-10A tika modernizēti līdz OV-10D standartam. 2015. gada novembrī un pēc 24 gadu dienesta Kolumbijas gaisa spēki aizgāja no visām atlikušajām OV-10 lidmašīnām. [30]

Vācija Rediģēt

OV-10B variants tika ražots Vācijai, lai to varētu izmantot kā mērķa velkoni. Astoņpadsmit lidmašīnas tika piegādātas pagājušā gadsimta 60. gadu beigās, un tās bija aprīkotas ar mērķa vilkšanas aprīkojumu fizelāžas iekšpusē. Caurspīdīgs plastmasas kupols nomainīja aizmugurējās kravas durvis, un kravas nodalījumā tika uzstādīts aizmugurējais sēdeklis, lai no kupola varētu skatīties atpakaļ. Pēc ilgas karjeras 1990. gadā Bronco tika aizstāts ar Pilatus PC-9, un visi lidaparāti tika izņemti un nosūtīti uz dažādiem muzejiem, tehnikumiem un izmantoti kā ABDR (Aircraft Battle Damage Repair).

Indonēzija Rediģēt

Indonēzija iegādājās 12 lidmašīnas OV-10F un izmanto tās operācijās COIN, kas ir līdzīgas ASV Jūras spēku Vjetnamas misijām ar Broncos, bet ir modernizējušas 12,7 mm (50 collas) smagus ložmetējus. ieroči. [31] Šīs lidmašīnas atradās Lanud Abdulrachman Saleh gaisa spēku bāzē Malangā, Austrumjavā, un tām bija izšķiroša nozīme iebrukumā Austrumtimorā un tai sekojošās COIN operācijās. 1977. gadā tos izmantoja arī gaisa bombardēšanas laikā Amungme ciematos, kas atrodas netālu no Brīvostas-Makmoroanas darbības apgabala Rietumapua, reaģējot uz OPM uzbrukumiem kalnrūpniecības uzņēmumu objektiem, kā arī Dani ciematiem Baliem ielejā, arī Rietumu Papua. reakcija uz sacelšanos pret piespiedu dalību Indonēzijas vispārējās vēlēšanās. [32] Tā kā trūka ASV bumbu, Indonēzijas gaisa spēki pārveidoja bumbu plauktus, lai pārvadātu Krievijas bumbas. Indonēzijas gaisa spēki plāno nomainīt OV-10F ar EMBRAER Super Tucanos pēc nāvējoša negadījuma 2013. gada 23. jūlijā. [33]

Maroka Rediģēt

Marokas Karaliskie gaisa spēki iegādājās sešus bijušos ASV. Jūras spēku korpuss OV-10A kā 1981. gadā. Tie atrodas Marakešas Menaras lidostā, un tie tika izmantoti nemiernieku operācijās pret Polisario spēkiem Rietumsahāras karā, izmantojot raķešu pākstis un ieroču padeves. Viens tika notriekts 1985. gadā. [34]

Filipīnas Rediģēt

Filipīnu gaisa spēki (PAF) 1991. gadā saņēma 24 OV-10A no ASV krājumiem, vēlāk sekoja vēl deviņi no ASV [35] un astoņi bijušie Taizemes gaisa spēku OV-10C 2003. – 2004. [35] [36] OV-10 apkalpo 15. uzbrukuma spārna 16. uzbrukuma eskadra un 25. saliktā uzbrukuma eskadra, kas atrodas Sangley Point, Cavite. [37] PAF lido Broncos, veicot meklēšanas un glābšanas un COIN operācijas dažādās Filipīnu daļās. Pirmās divas sieviešu kaujas pilotes PAF lidoja ar OV-10 ar 16. vietu. Šī eskadra lidoja pretterorisma operācijas Jolo salā. [38]

PAF OV-10 Broncos atkārtoti tika izmantoti gaisa triecienos pret Moro Islāma atbrīvošanas frontes pozīcijām 2011. gada notiekošo kauju laikā [39], un divi tika izmantoti gaisa triecienā 2012. gada februārī, kā rezultātā tika nogalināti trīs Abu Sayyaf un Jemaah Islamiyah komandieri. , starp citiem. [40] Tiek ziņots, ka Filipīnu gaisa spēku OV-10 ir modificēti, lai izmantotu mūsdienīgas viedās bumbas. [41] [42]

2017. gada 1. jūnijā PAF OV-10 lidoja bumbas uz Maute grupas pozīcijām Marawi kaujas laikā. [43]

OV-10 beidzot nomainīs Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano.

Taizeme Rediģēt

Taizemes Karaliskie gaisa spēki 70. gadu sākumā iegādājās 32 jaunas lidmašīnas OV-10C COIN lietošanai. [36] Kā ziņots, Broncos uzvarēja lielākajā daļā Taizemes spridzināšanas sacensību, līdz F-5Es sāka darboties. Savulaik RTAF lidoja ar OV-10 kā pretgaisa aizsardzības lidmašīna. [36] 2004. gadā RTAF ziedoja lielāko daļu OV-10 Filipīnām. [36] Trīs OV-10 izdzīvojušie ir izstādīti, viens-Tango eskadras spārna 41 muzejā Čhīanmai, RTAF muzejs Bangkokā un statisks displejs pie 5. spārna galvenajiem vārtiem Prachuap Khiri Khan. Atlikušie OV-10 tiks ziedoti PAF 2011. gadā. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Venecuēla Rediģēt

Venecuēlas gaisa spēki gadu gaitā ir ekspluatējuši vairākus jaunizveidotus OV-10E un bijušos ASVF OV-10A. 1992. gada 27. novembrī lidmašīnu plaši izmantoja dumpīgi virsnieki, kuri sarīkoja mēģinājumu valsts apvērsums pret bijušo prezidentu Karlosu Andrésu Perezu. Nemiernieki nometa bumbas un raidīja raķetes pret policijas un valdības ēkām Karakasā. Sacelšanās laikā tika zaudēti četri Bronko, tostarp divus notriecis lojāls ģenerālis Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. [44]

Venecuēlas OV-10 tuvākajos gados tiks izlaists pensijā. Sākotnēji Venecuēla mēģināja iegādāties lidmašīnu Embraer Super Tucano, lai aizstātu OV-10, taču netika panākta vienošanās, kuras prezidents Čavess apgalvoja, ka tas bija saistīts ar ASV valdības spiedienu. [45] Venecuēlas valdība ir nolēmusi tās neaizstāt ar jaunām fiksēta spārna lidmašīnām. Drīzāk Venecuēlas gaisa spēki tos aizstāj ar Krievijas ražoto uzbrukuma helikopteru Mil Mi-28. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Cita lietošana ASV Rediģēt

NASA rediģēšana

NASA dažādām pētniecības programmām ir izmantojusi vairākus Broncos, tostarp pētījumus par zema ātruma lidojumiem, kas tika veikti ar trešo prototipu 1970. gados, kā arī pētījumus par troksni un modināšanas turbulenci. [46] [47] Viens OV-10 palika lietots NASA Langley bāzē 2009. gadā ar trim papildu lidmašīnām, kas iegūtas no Valsts departamenta, kuras agrāk tika izmantotas narkotiku izskaušanai. [48]

ASV Valsts departamenta gaisa spārnu rediģēšana

Valsts departamenta (DoS) lidmašīnas ir bijušās Gaisa spēku OV-10A un jūras korpusa OV-10D lidmašīnas, kuras saskaņā ar līgumu izmanto DynCorp International, lai atbalstītu ASV narkotiku aizliegšanas un izskaušanas centienus Dienvidamerikā. Lidmašīnām ir ASV civilo lidmašīnu reģistrācijas numuri, un, ja tās netiek izvietotas uz priekšu, tās atrodas mājās DoS/DynCorp objektā Patrika kosmosa spēku bāzē, Floridā. [49]

Broncos bija noņemti sponsori un ap kabīnēm uzstādīti Kevlara ārējie bruņu paneļi. Uz vēdera bija vēja darbināms sūknis, kas pielāgots no lauksaimniecības lidmašīnām (labības putekļu sūcēji) ar vairāk nekā 500 litru (1900 litru) piltuves tvertni kravas nodalījumā. Smidzināšanas stienis stiepās līdz V no kravas nodalījuma līdz bagāžas nodalījumam. [ nepieciešams citāts ] Izdzīvojušais lidaparāts šādā konfigurācijā ir izstādīts Tenesī.


Statuss

The statuss simbols norāda uz to, vai identificētajā vietā eksistē kaujas objekts (ti, statuss ir "klāt") vai arī turpmāk tas atradīsies šajā vietā (ti, statuss ir "plānots, paredzēts, aizdomīgs" vai "pēc pasūtījuma") ). Neatkarīgi no piederības pašreizējo statusu norāda ar nepārtrauktu līniju, bet plānoto - ar pārtrauktu līniju. Rāmis ir ciets vai pārtraukts, ja vien simbola ikona nav ierāmēta, un tādā gadījumā pati ikona tiek zīmēta ar pārtrauktu punktu. Plānoto statusu nevar parādīt, ja simbols ir bez rāmja aizpildīta ikona.


Spitfire pret Spitfire: gaisa kaujas Izraēlas neatkarības karā

Divi Izraēlas Spitfires pavada B-17 no 69 eskadronu bombardēšanas misijā pret Ēģiptes spēkiem 1948. gada beigās.

Izraēlas Neatkarības karu iezīmēja mežonīga gaisa satiksme, kas uzsvēra konflikta mulsinošo raksturu.

1949. gada 7. janvāra ap pusdienlaiku divi Patrulējošie Izraēlas gaisa spēku (IAF) piloti Supermarine Spitfires pamanīja melnu dūmu kolonnu, kas cēlās no Sinaja tuksneša Al-Auja – Rafah apgabala. Tuvojoties, viņi ieraudzīja Izraēlas Aizsardzības spēku (IDF) motorizēto kolonnu, kas, pēc viņu domām, bija Ēģiptes Karalisko gaisa spēku (REAF) Spitfires uzbrukums. Lai gan vienu naidīgu Spitfire bija notriekusi IDF apšaude, trīs citi joprojām riņķoja. IAF duets steidzās palīgā. Pēc dažām minūtēm visi trīs atlikušie “naidīgie” tika notriekti. Izņemot to, ka viņi nebija ēģiptieši.

IAF piloti pārāk vēlu saprata, ka viņu pretinieki patiesībā ir Lielbritānijas Karalisko gaisa spēku (RAF) izlūkdienesti Spitfires, kuru pilotus bija piesaistījuši arī dūmi - apjukums, kas noveda pie nāvējošas nepareizas identificēšanas. Tomēr, tāpat kā lielākā daļa Tuvo Austrumu lietu šajā laikā, apstākļi bija daudz sarežģītāki nekā no pirmā acu uzmetiena. Ne mazāk svarīgs bija fakts, ka vienu Izraēlas Spitfire lidoja Kanādas Otrā pasaules kara dūzis, bet otru - bijušais amerikāņu izmēģinājuma pilots, abi IAF brīvprātīgie, kuri savulaik bija dienējuši kopā ar britiem.

Incidents notika Izraēlas Neatkarības kara pēdējā dienā. Taču tās pirmsākumi meklējami dziļajā Tuvo Austrumu politikas tīmeklī, kas notika pirms un pēc Lielbritānijas mandāta beigām Palestīnā 1948. gada 14. maija pusnaktī, un ANO komisijas ieteikumam nodalīt arābu un ebreju valstis. Palestīna.

Bijušo nepārtraukto karu nogurdināti un tikko atteikušies no Indijas impērijas, briti nebija noskaņoti pieķerties nestabilai Tuvo Austrumu teritorijai par vēl lielāku dzīvību cenu. Bet viņiem bija jāorganizē sakārtota izstāšanās. Tūlītējais pēckara periods, kad britu mandāts bija no 1946. līdz 47. gadam, nebija tālu no mierīga, jo īpaši attiecībā uz RAF, ko izsmelusi masveida demobilizācija. Turklāt RAF nevēlamais uzdevums atrast un identificēt kuģus, kas pārvadāja ebreju “nelegālos” imigrantus, galvenokārt izdzīvojušos no holokausta, lai Karaliskā flote pārtvertu, noveda pie tā, ka tās bāzes tika izraudzītas ebreju kaujinieku uzbrukumam. Tika uzspridzināta radara stacija un no RAF bruņojuma tika nozagti ieroči. Tad naktī no 1946. gada 25. uz 26. februāri, vienlaicīgu uzbrukumu laikā trim RAF bāzēm, ebreju reidi iznīcināja vai sabojāja 22 Handley Page Halifax bumbvedējus, septiņus Spitfires un četrus Avro Ansons.

Pēc šiem un citiem uzbrukumiem RAF klātbūtne Palestīnā līdz 1947. gada vidum bija samazināta līdz piecām eskadronām, ieskaitot 32. un 208. lidojošo Spitfires. Citas vienības bija pārcēlušās uz Kipru vai Suecas kanāla zonu. Pieaugot arābu naidīgumam pret ebrejiem, arī arābu un ebreju konfliktos bija jāiejaucas britu spēkiem, kuri bija pilnībā okupēti, lai aizstāvētu sevi galvenokārt pret ebreju uzbrukumiem.

Well before the British departure, the Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah had formed an air wing, the Sharut Avir (SA), flying a ragtag assortment of civil aircraft in support of the isolated Jewish settlements. One of its pilots was young Palestine-born Ezer Weizman, who had learned to fly with the RAF but not yet seen combat. Although the British made no serious efforts to interfere with the SA’s activities, they kept a cautious eye on developments.

Meanwhile, anticipating war with their prospective Arab neighbors, Jewish agents and their supporters in the U.S. and Europe were searching for modern aircraft and combat-experienced crewmen, preferably Jewish. Many came forward, including numerous non-Jews, or “Machals,” who volunteered for ideological reasons or because they missed combat.


Former Bell test pilot Chalmers "Slick" Goodlin with an S-199. (Lawrence Nyveen)

Instructed by their Soviet masters to rid themselves of Western equipment, the Communist Czech authorities agreed to sell the agents 25 Avia S-199s, Czech-built Messerschmitt Me-109Gs fitted with Junkers Jumo 211 engines instead of the usual Daimler Benz DB 605s (a pairing that resulted in unpleasant flying characteristics and the nickname “Mule”). The Czechs also agreed to train a number of Jewish pilots, Weizman among them. In America Israeli agents purchased four P-51 Mustangs, three B-17s and later a number of North American T-6s that were converted to the attack role, plus an assortment of transport aircraft, initially used to airlift some of the S-199s from Czechoslovakia.

The war with the Arab states of Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, Iraq and Syria began immediately after the end of the British Mandate and the declaration of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948. The Arabs had rejected the 1947 U.N. Partition Plan for Palestine that was intended to create Arab and Jewish states side by side. The conflict had several phases, a detailed description of which is outside the scope of this article. Ultimately, with the IAF able to quickly establish air supremacy, Israeli victories on the ground came in swift succession on all fronts, leading to a rapid expansion of the new nation’s territory. Although their main opponents, the numerically superior Egyptians, were British-trained and -equipped, they had no combat experience and never offered serious opposition to the IAF’s veterans.

Meanwhile the soon-to-depart RAF was not immune from the conflict. On the morning of May 22, Egyptian Spitfire LF Mark IXs attacked Ramat David airfield, near the British enclave at Haifa (which the RAF was preparing to evacuate). Two RAF Spitfires were destroyed on the ground and eight others damaged. During a second raid a Douglas Dakota transport was destroyed while landing, killing two crewmen and two airmen. A third REAF attack did little damage, since the RAF had by then mounted a standing patrol of No. 208 Squadron Spitfires over the airfield. Five Egyptian Spits were shot down, one by groundfire, one each by Flying Officers Geoff Cooper and Roy Bowie and two by Flying Officer Tim McElhaw. The REAF later said its pilots had mistaken Ramat David for “the Zionist airfield at Megiddo,” which—as the IAF had yet to acquire Spitfires—suggests the Egyptian fliers were weak on aircraft recognition.

Not that the Israelis weren’t keen to obtain Spitfires. They would eventually rebuild two using parts salvaged from crashed RAF and REAF aircraft. McElhaw recalled an incident at Ramat David when an egg seller from a Jewish kibbutz furtively brought in an offer to the officers’ mess to pay £8,000 to anyone who would fly a Spitfire into Tel Aviv airfield. The plot specified that the pilot would later be taken out to sea, dropped in the water, rescued and returned with a cover story that he had been seen ditching. The pilots were amused by the offer, but there were no takers.

The Israelis eventually got their Spitfires through an agreement with the Czechs in June 1948 to purchase 59 LF Mk. IXs. These ex-RAF aircraft had formed the nucleus of the new Czech air force but for political reasons had to be discarded by 1948. IAF pilots would fly them across Europe to Israel in stages.

Mistaken identity may have been responsible for an Israeli “attack” on RAF Amman on May 31-June 1. Knowing that members of the Arab League were to meet in the Trans-jordanian capital, the Israelis decided to bomb Amman in a show of defiance, using a scratch force comprising a Beech Bonanza, a Fairchild Argus and a de Havilland Dragon Rapide. Their bombs killed six Arab civilians and injured eight others. Whether by accident or design, four crude bombs and three incendiaries exploded within the perimeter of the RAF base, slightly damaging two Ansons but resulting in no casualties. British forces in Transjordan were put on the alert, and a stripped-down Percival Proctor communications aircraft was briefly converted into a “night fighter.”

While bitter fighting continued between Israeli and Arab forces, the RAF sought to monitor developments through reconnaissance flights over the Sinai and Israel using unarmed de Havilland Mosquito PR Mark 34s of No. 13 Squadron, based at Kabrit in the Canal Zone. Suspecting that at least some of the intelligence gained from these flights was being passed to the Egyptians, the IAF made several unsuccessful attempts at interception, failing because they had no aircraft capable of reaching the required altitude—that is, until four P-51Ds arrived in crates from the U.S. in late September. After assembly, these were allocated to the IAF’s Hatzor-based 101 Fighter Squadron, to augment its S-199s and Spitfires.

On November 20, Flying Officer Eric Reynolds and navigator Flight Sgt. Angus Love were assigned to the “Palestine milk run.” Having flown the route several times before, they had no reason to believe it would be anything other than routine. Probably through overconfidence, they stayed well below the PR 34’s maximum altitude of 43,000 feet while heading for Palestine’s northern coast to photograph Israeli airfields. Sighting the Mosquito, 101 Squadron dispatched a P-51 flown by U.S. Army Air Forces combat veteran Wayne Peake, a non-Jewish volunteer. Even though Peake’s oxygen system malfunctioned, he managed to take the Mustang up to 30,000 feet, 2,000 feet above the Mosquito, then fired off a long burst that initially seemed to have no effect. But after turning out to sea and losing altitude, the PR 34 exploded and crashed, killing Reynolds and Love. Back at Hatzor, the oxygen-starved Peake at first claimed he had shot down a four-engine Halifax bomber.

The IAF sent Weizman up in an amphibian to look for survivors, but he found only wreckage. Mosquito overflights were suspended, and RAF intelligence faced angry questions over its failure to register the IAF’s acquisition of fighters that could fly above 30,000 feet.

Israel’s last push of the war, code-named “Chorev,” was conceived in early December 1948 with the objective of finally ousting the Egyptians from the Negev, safeguarding Israel’s southernmost communities and giving the fledgling country an unassailable negotiating position with the Arab nations. The IAF would once again be at the forefront of the offensive, with 101 Squadron deploying five Spitfires, two P-51s and six S-199s.

As Chorev progressed, increasing activity by REAF Spitfires and other aircraft based at El-Arish led the Israelis to undertake a daring commando raid against the airfield and auxiliary landing grounds. At one satellite base they captured an unserviceable Spitfire LF Mk. IX they planned to tow back to Israeli-held territory. Alarmed, the REAF began evacuating their main El-Arish base.


208 Squadron flew the Spitfire Mk. XVIII. More powerful than the Spitfire Mk. XI, the Israeli fighter proved more maneuverable. (RAF Museum, Hendon)

The RAF’s 205 Group, based in the Canal Zone, began monitoring the Israeli advance through photorecon missions flown by Nos. 13 and 208 squadrons over the northern Sinai. Mosquitos of 13 Squadron had recommenced flights over Israel in early December. By the war’s final week, the Egyptians were appealing to the British for assistance. The RAF had already allowed the REAF to use three of its early-warning radar sets, in case the IAF tried to reach Egypt’s heartland. Now the British formally agreed to provide refueling facilities at various RAF airfields in the Canal Zone, and also allow Egyptian aircraft to land if at serious risk. In the meantime, stunned by the speed of the Israeli advance, the British foreign secretary advised his American counterpart that if the Israelis didn’t withdraw from Egyptian territory, the British would take action against them under the 1936 Egyptian Treaty. President Harry Truman demanded that Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion order the Israeli forces to withdraw. After token protests, the Israeli leader instructed the IDF to begin pulling back to the international frontier. But it was not until later that a U.N.-brokered cease-fire was finally agreed to, commencing at 1600 hours on January 7, 1949.

On January 1, meanwhile, RAF Fayid had sent a 13 Squadron Mosquito and two 208 Squadron Spitfires to monitor developments along the front. Four 208 Squadron Spits later photographed the REAF Spitfire captured by the Israelis from El-Arish being towed toward the frontier along the Abu Ageila–Al-Auja road.

A sandstorm on January 6 halted military operations by both sides, but RAF Mosquitos and Spitfires carried out a tactical reconnaissance of the Egyptian-Israeli frontier. The pilots reported considerable activity along the Al-Auja– Rafah road, and 208 Squadron’s commanding officer decided further recon would be needed the following day—setting the scene for tragedy.

Four 208 Squadron pilots were assigned to the mission: Flying Officer Cooper and his wingman, Sergeant Frank Close, and Flying Officer McElhaw and Sergeant Ron Sayers. (Cooper and McElhaw had shot down REAF Spitfires over Ramat David on May 22, 1948.) Their brief was to establish the position of Israeli forces in northeast Sinai by surveying the Al-Auja–Rafah road. Although the pilots were instructed not to cross into Israeli territory, their commanders made it clear that information on the whereabouts of the towed-away REAF Spitfire would not be unwelcome. All the aircraft were fully armed.

Getting airborne from Fayid at 1115 hours on January 7, the Spitfire FR Mk. XVIIIs flew to Abu Ageila, then separated into two sections. Cooper and Close flew at 500 feet, with McElhaw and Sayers providing top cover at 1,500 feet, over an expanse of featureless desert along the border between Egypt and Israel. Their route included a number of turning points where it would have been easy for the formation to penetrate the border—which the RAF pilots almost certainly did during their unsuccessful search for the captured Egyptian Spitfire. They then turned back toward Rafah inside Egyptian territory, heading west to Fayid.

The patrol was unaware that, about 15 minutes earlier near Rafah, five REAF Spitfire LF IXs had strafed an Israeli motorized column, setting three trucks on fire. Sighting the black smoke, the RAF planes veered toward the burning vehicles, Cooper and Close dropping down to near ground level to photograph the scene.

The Israelis in the column, convinced they faced a second wave of Egyptian attackers, opened fire with machine guns, hitting both RAF aircraft. Close’s Spitfire caught fire almost immediately, but he managed to climb to 500 feet and bail out, although his feet caught in the parachute rigging and he landed head first, breaking his jaw. Cooper’s aircraft was less seriously damaged, and he climbed out of immediate danger.

Bewildered, McElhaw and Sayers dropped down to investigate. Also attracted by the smoke were the two patrolling 101 Squadron Spitfire LF IXs, flown by Royal Canadian Air Force ace John McElroy and American Chalmers “Slick” Goodlin, also ex-RCAF and a former U.S. Navy and Bell X-1 test pilot. Sighting the four Spitfires, they assumed these were the REAF airplanes responsible for strafing the convoy. Moreover, since the Israelis almost invariably flew in pairs, it was an IAF operational assumption that any larger grouping must be hostile. As Weizman explained, “If you encountered a foursome they evidently weren’t ours—so shoot ’em up if you can.” Although the IAF Spitfires still had RAF radios and McElroy and Goodlin could hear excited English voices discussing Close’s loss, they failed to connect those transmissions with the incident below. They prepared to attack.

The three remaining RAF pilots evidently did not see the approaching IAF Spitfires, or perhaps had been lulled into a false sense of security by the British-style camouflage and red airscrew spinners similar to their own. Before the British realized the danger, McElroy had fired a burst into Sayers’ aircraft, killing him and downing his Spitfire.

McElroy then turned his attention to McElhaw’s Spitfire. He later said, “I took one look and saw it wasn’t one of ours by the markings, ours had tails painted with big red and white stripes…. so I dropped my sights on him, it was about 400 yards, and I let fly.” His victim recalled: “The first sign I had of trouble was an R/T call [from Cooper], ‘Look out, there’s one behind you!’ I looked out and saw one behind me. That was the end of it. I was simply shot down while orbiting the Close wreckage.” McElhaw bailed out, unhurt.

Goodlin had been pursuing Cooper, who put up more of a fight. The American later wrote: “I could not gain close proximity to the Spit 18 due to the lesser power in my Spit 9. At about 16,000’ the Spit 18 rolled over and dived back towards me at an impossible deflection angle, with machine-guns blazing and exhaust smoke rolling out under both wings.” Taking advantage of his Spitfire IX’s greater maneuverability, Goodlin managed to shoot Cooper down. He recalled, “I only recognized the RAF roundels after the Spit 18 had fired on me, when we were in the scissors engagement and I had no alternative but to fight back to save my own bacon.” (Cooper evaded capture, but McElhaw and Close fell into Israeli hands. They were eventually put on a ship to Cyprus).


Canadian John McElroy shows off his combat-damaged rudder on January 7, 1949. (ISF/GPO)

After landing, McElroy and Goodlin were greeted with disbelief over their claims to having shot down three RAF Spitfires. Weizman recalled that not everyone was delighted: “These two clowns may have been unperturbed, but we weren’t. We were breathless with agitation. After all, the British are the British. They’re no Egyptians.” But Weizman would soon put his misgivings aside to go into action against the British during a mission originally intended to be a final demonstration of force against the REAF at El-Arish. Four IAF Spitfires participated.

Concerned at having heard nothing from the 208 Squadron patrol, the RAF sent seven Hawker Tempest VIs from 213 Squadron and eight from 6 Squadron to escort four 208 Squadron Spitfires in a search. Over Rafah the RAF formation was observed by Weizman’s four Spitfires, who initially mistook the Tempests for “British Spits” and their underwing drop tanks for bombs. Weizman gave the order to attack. During the confusion of the first pass, volunteer pilot Bill “Sure Shot” Schroeder, an ex–U.S. Navy combat veteran, shot down the 213 Squadron Tempest of Pilot Officer David Tattersfield, who died instantly. Only then did the 213 Squadron pilots realize that their guns, although loaded, had not been cocked by the ground crews.

Seeing the IAF Spitfires attack, four 6 Squadron Tempests— flying top cover under the command of Squadron Leader Denis Crowley-Milling—gave chase, and although their guns fired, they couldn’t jettison their drop tanks (the release pins of the jettison levers had been overtightened). Weizman, meanwhile, had scored hits on a 6 Squadron Tempest flown by Sergeant Douglas Liquorish, but his Spitfire also sustained minor damage after being fired on by Flight Lt. Brian Spragg’s Tempest.

Thanks to their red spinners, which were identical to those of the IAF attackers, the four 208 Squadron Spitfires were in double jeopardy. Flying Officer Roy Bowie of 208 Squadron recalled, “In the melee we were anything but safe as Spitfires were treated as hostile by the Tempests until proven otherwise.”

It was not the RAF’s finest hour. Air Chief Marshal Sir David Lee later described the day’s events as a “dramatic and humiliating confrontation with the Israelis.” The RAF pilots went home vowing revenge. Crowley-Milling remembered, “When we landed back we armed up and begged Headquarters to let us take out the Israeli Air Force at their base.” The IAF pilots likewise prepared to defend themselves. But to the Israelis’ surprise—and to the disappointment of the Egyptians—there was no retribution. The British Foreign Office slapped the Israelis on the wrist with a demand for compensation for the equipment and personnel lost (which was never paid), and the Air Ministry issued a statement that, henceforth, any Israeli aircraft encountered over Egyptian territory would be regarded as hostile by the RAF and dealt with accordingly.

The next day the IAF’s 101 Squadron pilots sent a note to their 208 Squadron counterparts: “Sorry about yesterday, but you were on the wrong side of the fence. Come over and have a drink sometime. You will see many familiar faces.”

At war’s end, when most of the foreign volunteers left the IAF, their departure was unlamented by Ezer Weizman. He noted that their “previous combat experience had always given us the feeling that they looked down on us from a position of superiority, allowing themselves an occasional smile at the ‘natives.’…I’m glad they came when they did, but I’m equally glad they left us to face our problems.” Weizman himself went on to greater things, serving as commander of the IAF from 1958-66 and president of Israel from 1993-2000.

RAF veteran Derek O’Connor, who writes from Amersham, Bucks, UK, is a frequent contributor on British aviation topics. For further reading, he recommends: Spitfires Over Israel, by Brian Cull and Shono Alomi with David Nicolle Wings in the Sun, by ACM Sir David Lee On Eagles’ Wings: The Personal Story of the Leading Commander of the Israeli Air Force, by Ezer Weizman and Fighters Over Israel, by Lon Nordeen. A documentary about the IAF’s birth, Above and Beyond, is currently appearing at film festivals and will premiere nationwide early next year (see the trailer at playmountproductions.com).

Originally published in the November 2014 issue of Aviācijas vēsture. To subscribe, click here.


Request Military Service Records

Recent military service and medical records are not online. However, most veterans and their next of kin can obtain free copies of their DD Form 214 (Report of Separation) and the following military service records any of the ways listed below.

Looking for records?

If you are unable to start the form online and prefer to submit a traditional request form, you can mail or Fax it:

How can I check on the status of my request?

Allow about 10 days for us to receive and process your request before checking your request status.

Please indicate whether you know your request number using the buttons below:

You may also telephone the NPRC Customer Service Line (this is a long-distance call for most customers): 314-801-0800. Piezīme: Our peak calling times are weekdays between 10:00 a.m. CT and 3:00 p.m. CT. Staff is available to take your call as early as 7:00 a.m. and as late as 5:00 p.m. CT.

Click "+" to display more information:

What if I’m not the Veteran or next-of-kin? Can I still access files?

  • It depends on the date the service member separated from the military. Military personnel records are open to the public 62 years after they leave the military. (To calculate this, take the current year and subtract 62.) Records of any veteran who separated from the military 62 (or more) years ago can be ordered by jebkurš for a copying fee (detailed below under “cost”). See Access to Military Records by the General Public for more details.

But what if it's been less than 62 years?

  • Records of individuals who left service mazāk than 62 years ago are subject to access restrictions and only limited information or copies may be released to the general public within the provisions of the law. The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act provide balance between the right of the public to obtain information from military service records and the right of the former military service member to protect his/her privacy. See Federal Records Center Program to access these records.

Cost: Most basic requests are free but it depends on the discharge date. (Learn more)

Free if Discharge Date is LESS than 62 years ago:

Generally there is no charge for basic military personnel and medical record information provided to veterans, next of kin and authorized representatives from Federal (non-archival) records.

Some companies advertise DD Form 214 research services and will charge a fee for obtaining copies. This is provided as a free service by the National Archives and Records Administration.

Costs for Discharge Dates MORE than 62 years ago:

There is a fee for records that are considered "Archival," which depends on the discharge date. If the request is made 62 years after the service member's separation from the military, the records are now open to the public and subject to the public fee schedule (44 USC 2116c and 44 USC 2307). This is a rolling date, the current year minus 62 years. Uzzināt vairāk.

These archival requests require the purchase of the COMPLETE photocopy of the Official Military Personnel File (OMPF):

  • A routine OMPFs of 5 pages or less: $25 flat fee
  • A routine OMPF of 6 pages or more: $70 flat fee (most OMPFs fall in this category) OMPF: $.80 cents per page ($20 minimum)

If your request involves a service fee, you will be notified as soon as that determination is made.

Response Time: most requests for separation documents can be processed within 10 days (Learn more)

Response times from NPRC vary depending on the complexity of your request, the availability of the records, and our workload.

  • Requests for separation documents DD 214 within 10 days (about 92% of the time)
  • Requests that involve reconstruction efforts due to the 1973 Fire, or older records that require extensive search efforts, may take 6 months or more to complete.

We work actively to respond to each request in a timely fashion, keep in mind we receive approximately 4,000 - 5,000 requests per day.

Please do not send a follow-up request before 90 days have elapsed, as it may cause further delays.

Who may request military service records?

You may request military service records (including DD 214) if you are:

  • A military veteran, vai
  • Next of kin of a deceased, former member of the military.
    The next of kin can be any of the following:
    • Surviving spouse who has not remarried
    • Father
    • Mother
    • Son
    • Meita
    • Sister
    • Brother

    Public access depends on the discharge date:

    Records are accessioned into the National Archives, and become archival, 62 years after the service member's separation from the military. This is a rolling date, the current year minus 62 years. See more information on records older than 62 years.

    Archival records are open to the public and can be ordered online for a copying fee. See Access to Military Records by the General Public for more details.

    What information do I need for the request?

    Required Information:

    Your request must contain certain basic information for us to locate your service records. This information includes:

    • The veteran's complete name used while in service
    • Service number
    • Social Security number
    • Branch of service
    • Dates of service
    • Date and place of birth (especially if the service number is not known).
    • If you suspect your records may have been involved in the 1973 fire, also include:
      • Place of discharge
      • Last unit of assignment
      • Place of entry into the service, if known.

      Recommended Information (optional):

      While this information is not required, it is extremely helpful to staff in understanding and fulfilling your request:

      • The purpose or reason for your request, such as applying for veterans benefits, preparing to retire, or researching your personal military history.
      • Jebkurš deadlines related to your request. We will do our best to meet any priorities. For example, if you were applying for a VA-guaranteed Home Loan and need to provide proof of military service by a specific date.
      • Any other specific information, documents, or records you require from your Official Military Personnel File (OMPF) besides your Report of Separation (DD Form 214).

      For additional details on what information may or may not be included, please see the Special Notice to Veterans and Family Members regarding requests for copies of military personnel and/or medical files.

      Where to Send My Request

      You can mail or fax your signed un dated request to the National Archives' National Personnel Record Center (NPRC). Be sure to use the address specified (either in the instructions on the SF-180 or in our online system, eVetRecs). Most, but not all records, are stored at the NPRC. (See full list of Locations of Military Service Records.)

      NPRC Fax Number :
      FAX: 314-801-9195

      NPRC Mailing Address:
      National Personnel Records Center
      Military Personnel Records
      1 Archives Drive
      St. Louis, MO 63138
      PHONE: 314-801-0800*
      *Our peak calling times are weekdays between 10:00 a.m. CT and 3:00 p.m. CT. Staff is available to take your call as early as 7:00 a.m. and as late as 5:00 p.m. CT.

      Please note that requests which are sent by Priority Mail, FedEx, UPS, or other "express" services will only arrive at the NPRC sooner. They will not be processed any faster than standard requests. See the section above on emergency requests and deadlines.

      Other Methods to Obtain Military Service Records

      Other potential methods to obtain your records include:

      Special Note on Contacting by Email: Requests for military personnel records or information from them cannot be accepted by email at this time. The Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a) and Department of Defense directives require a written request, signed and dated, to access information from military personnel records. Our email address should only be used only to request general information (hours of operations, procedures and forms) or to submit compliments, complaints, or concerns.

      PIEZĪME: If you send messages using WebTV or a free-email service, you will not receive our response if your mailbox is full. Messages sent to full mailboxes are returned to us as "undeliverable." You may wish to include your mailing address in your message so that we may respond via the U.S. Postal Service.

      How Can I Check on the Status of My Request?

      Allow about 10 days for us to receive and process your request, then you may check on the status. If you know your request number, click the Check Status button below to go to the check status page.

      If you do not know your request number, please provide the following information using the Online Status Update Request form.


      Vēsture [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

      During World War II the facility was known as RAF Station Kabrit, (Landing Ground 213) and was a major Royal Air Force facility which was used during the Western Desert Campaign. In 1941, it was where the Special Air Service (SAS) was formed. Beginning in 1943, United States Army Air Forces Ninth Air Force units arrived to supplement the RAF against the Germans in the Western Desert. After the war, Karbit remained a RAF station until the breakdown in relations between the British and Egyptian governments in 1956 when the decision was taken to pull out British forces from the Canal Zone.

      The base was taken over by the Egyptian Air Force and renamed "Kibrit", becoming one of its main air bases. During the 1956 Suez Crisis, it was a base for the EAF 20 Squadron, equipped with twelve Soviet-built MiG-15 aircraft. During the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, the base was attacked by the Israeli Air Force, and many of its Soviet-built MiG-17 aircraft were destroyed on the ramp by the IAF's Dassault Mystère IVs. In the 1973 Yom Kippur War with Israel, the airfield was captured by Israeli ground forces that crossed the Suez Canal along with Kasfreet and Shalufa Air Bases, however it was not used by the Israeli Air Force.

      Kibrit was used by the Egyptian Air Force until the 1980s and the EAF units and personnel moved to the new USAF built Fayid Air Base Currently, the airfield is closed and not on the EAF's current order of battle as being an active base. Its main runways are having their asphalt removed and it is unclear what the future holds for the airfield.


      No.208 Squadron / RNAS 8 (GBR) History

      • 1CGS --> Developer
      • Posts: 6670

      Hello friends. Please assist in writing ENGLISH text of history of the squadron which will be available to player in the first release of the New Career.
      It should contains more than 2500 symbols (no upper limit), and it should describe WHOLE history of the squadron - from fundation till it's history end (amy be even till modern days, like for USAF 94th Aero Squadron for example).
      Any additional facts and remarks are appreciated.

      So please discuss and post your texts here for No.208 Squadron (RNAS 8) Britain squadron

      #2 WWBrian

      • Posts: 2418

      The squadron was established as part of the Royal Naval Air Service in October 1916 at Dunkirk as No. 8 (Naval) Squadron.

      In its earlier days, the unit flew Sopwith Pups, 1½ Strutters and Nieuport Scouts. Later, the squadron was re-equipped with Sopwith Camels and was assigned to artillery spotting. The squadron returned to the UK briefly before being sent back to France to face the German offensive. While in France a significant number of Camels belonging to the squadron were destroyed by the RAF to stop the Germans capturing them during their advance.

      When the Royal Air Force was formed on 1 April 1918, the unit was renumbered to No. 208 Squadron RAF. After the armistice, 208 Squadron remained with the occupying forces until August 1919, when it again returned to the UK for disbandment the following month.

      During the Great War, the squadron claimed 298 victories.

      Twenty-five aces had served in the squadron. Notable among them were Anthony Arnold, Charles Dawson Booker, Robert J. O. Compston, Harold Day, Stanley Goble, Edward Grahame Johnstone, William Lancelot Jordan, Robert A. Little, William E. G. Mann, Richard Munday, Guy William Price, George Simpson, Reginald Soar, Ronald Thornley, and James White.

      The squadron reformed at Ismailia in Egypt on 1 February 1920 by the renumbering of No. 113 Squadron RAF. It was equipped with RE8s and from November 1920 till May 1930 with Bristol Fighters.

      208 Squadron was still stationed in Egypt at the outbreak of World War II. It joined the war effort in mid-1940 flying Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft and Hawker Hurricane fighters on army co-operation duties in the North African Campaign and the Greek Campaign of 1941. During the war it included a significant number of Royal Australian Air Force and South African Air Force personnel, along with other nationalities.

      Shortly after the war, 208 Squadron moved back to Palestine where it was involved in operations against the Egyptian Air Force. In 1948, the squadron moved to the Egyptian Canal Zone. It saw action in the Israeli War of Independence, losing four Spitfires in combat with Israeli Air Force aircraft (which also included Spitfires).

      The last officially recorded "Air to Air fighter pilot kill" (bullets only without guidance systems) occurred on 22 May 1948, at 09:30 two Egyptian Spitfire LF.9s decided to stage a third attack on Ramat David. This time Fg Off Tim McElhaw and Fg Off Hully of 208 Squadron had taken over the standing patrol. Fg Off McElhaw, flying Spitfire FR.18 TZ228, managed to intercept and shoot down both LF.9s.

      In 1951, the squadron relocated to RAF Fayid where its Spitfires were replaced with Gloster Meteor jets. From there it moved to RAF Abu Sueir, relocating to RAF Takali, Malta, in late 1956, with interim spells earlier in the year at RNAS Hal Far, Malta, and RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus. It disbanded at Takhali in January 1956. It reformed the same month in the UK at RAF Tangmere from a nucleus of No. 34 Squadron RAF.

      In June 1964 it moved to Muharraq in Bahrain.The squadron remained in the Middle East until September 1971 when it was disbanded as a consequence of British drawdown of the armed forces from East of Suez.

      208 Squadron reformed at RAF Honington in 1974 with Blackburn Buccaneer S2s assigned to SACEUR operating in a low-level strike role. The unit was one of the last squadrons to operate the Buccaneer before it went out of service in 1994, and after the type's retirement the squadron again disbanded on 31 March 1994.

      208 Squadron was reformed on 1 April 1994 from 234 (Reserve) Squadron attached to No. 4 Flying Training School. It moved to RAF Valley operating the BAe Hawk that it continues to fly to this day. No.4 FTS is made up of two squadrons 208 Squadron provides the advanced flying training, students then moving onto 19 Squadron to receive tactics and weapons training.

      The vast majority of sorties undertaken by today's 208 Squadron are flown to teach RAF ab-initio pilots the fundamental skills of flying a fast-jet, to prepare them for tactical weapons training and onwards towards front-line aircraft such as the Tornado, Harrier and Typhoon.

      #3 Han

      • 1CGS --> Developer
      • Posts: 6670

      Completed, thread unstickied.

      Any additional details may be added / corrected.

      #4 LukeFF

      • Tester --> Tester
      • Posts: 7853
      • Location Redlands, California

      -No. 8 (Naval) Squadron flew its first sortie on 3 November 1916.
      -Flight Sub-Lieutenant DMB Galbraith scored the squadron's first victory on 9 November 1916.
      -The unit also flew Sopwith Triplanes in addition to the ones listed above.

      #5 LukeFF

      • Tester --> Tester
      • Posts: 7853
      • Location Redlands, California

      No 208 Squadron was originally established as part of the Royal Naval Air Service 26 October 1916 at Dunkirk as No 8 (Naval) Squadron and was immediately passed to Royal Flying Corps control. The squadron flew its first sortie on 3 November 1916.

      In its earlier days, the unit flew Sopwith Pups, 1½ Strutters and Nieuport Scouts. Flight Sub-Lieutenant DMB Galbraith scored the squadron's first victory on 9 November 1916. In 1917, the unit was re-equipped with Sopwith Triplanes and later with Sopwith Camels and was assigned to artillery spotting. The squadron returned to the UK briefly before being sent back to France to face the German offensive in the spring of 1918, where it would become No 208 Squadron RAF on 1 April 1918. Just over a week later, 16 Camels belonging to the unit had to be destroyed to prevent them from falling into the hands of the advancing German forces.

      During the Great War, the squadron claimed 298 victories.

      Twenty-five aces had served in the squadron. Notable among them were Anthony Arnold, Charles Dawson Booker, Robert J. O. Compston, Harold Day, Stanley Goble, Edward Grahame Johnstone, William Lancelot Jordan, Robert A. Little, William E. G. Mann, Richard Munday, Guy William Price, George Simpson, Reginald Soar, Ronald Thornley, and James White.

      After the Armistice, No 208 Squadron remained with the occupying forces in Germany until August 1919, when it returned to the UK for disbandment at Netheravon in November 1919. The squadron reformed at Ismailia in Egypt on 1 February 1920 by the renumbering of No 113 Squadron RAF. It was equipped with RE8s and from November 1920 until May 1930 with Bristol Fighters.

      No 208 Squadron was still stationed in Egypt at the outbreak of World War II. It joined the war effort in mid-1940 flying Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft and Hawker Hurricane fighters on army co-operation duties in the North African Campaign and the Greek Campaign of 1941. During the war, it included a significant number of Royal Australian Air Force and South African Air Force personnel, along with other nationalities.

      Shortly after the war, 208 Squadron moved back to Palestine where it was involved in operations against the Egyptian Air Force. In 1948, the squadron moved to the Egyptian Canal Zone. It saw action in the Israeli War of Independence, losing four Spitfires in combat with Israeli Air Force aircraft (which also included Spitfires).

      The last officially recorded "Air to Air fighter pilot kill" (bullets only without guidance systems) occurred on 22 May 1948, at 09:30 two Egyptian Spitfire LF.9s decided to stage a third attack on Ramat David. This time Fg Off Tim McElhaw and Fg Off Hully of 208 Squadron had taken over the standing patrol. Fg Off McElhaw, flying Spitfire FR.18 TZ228, managed to intercept and shoot down both LF.9s.

      In 1951, the squadron relocated to RAF Fayid where its Spitfires were replaced with Gloster Meteor jets. From there it moved to RAF Abu Sueir, relocating to RAF Takali, Malta, in late 1956, with interim spells earlier in the year at RNAS Hal Far, Malta, and RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus. It disbanded at Takhali in January 1956. It reformed the same month in the UK at RAF Tangmere from a nucleus of No 34 Squadron RAF.

      In June 1964, it moved to Muharraq in Bahrain. The squadron remained in the Middle East until September 1971 when it was disbanded because of British drawdown of the armed forces from East of Suez.

      No 208 Squadron reformed at RAF Honington in 1974 with Blackburn Buccaneer S2s assigned to SACEUR operating in a low-level strike role. The unit was one of the last squadrons to operate the Buccaneer before it went out of service in 1994, and after the type's retirement, the squadron again disbanded on 31 March 1994.

      No 208 Squadron was reformed on 1 April 1994 from 234 (Reserve) Squadron attached to No. 4 Flying Training School. It moved to RAF Valley operating the BAe Hawk that it continues to fly to this day. No 4 FTS is made up of two squadrons 208 Squadron provides the advanced flying training, students then moving onto 19 Squadron to receive tactics and weapons training.

      The vast majority of sorties undertaken by today's 208 Squadron are flown to teach RAF ab-initio pilots the fundamental skills of flying a fast jet, to prepare them for tactical weapons training and onwards towards front-line aircraft such as the Tornado, Harrier and Typhoon.


      Lionel Cherry Gilmour World War I Collection

      The Lionel Cherry Gilmour World War I Collection is comprised of a small photograph album, loose photographs, a prisoner-of-war diary, and assorted research documents pertaining to the World War I service and prisoner-of-war (POW) experience of Lieutenant Lionel Cherry Gilmour (1891-1973) of the Royal Air Force (RAF) and its predecessor, the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The collections has been arranged into two series: personal materials of Lionel Cherry Gilmour and research materials.

      Series I, Personal Materials , includes Gilmour's personal handwritten diary describing how he was shot down on July 31, 1918. It continues describing his first few weeks as a POW at various German camps, including Karlsruhe, Germany. Additional materials include a small black leather photograph album, which holds approximately 40 photographs depicting military personnel in both posed and casual settings military buildings and the interior of a church and military aircraft. Many of the photographs have faded and are difficult to see clearly. Pages typically have one to four photographs that have been affixed with photo corners and/or glue. However, many photographs are loose or have been removed/fallen out. Images often include very brief captions. People are generally identified only by rank and last name (ex. "Lt. McDonald").

      Two photographic postcards were found on the top of the album. One features Wantage Hall in Reading, England, where Gilmour was in training, and the other depicts Lionel Cherry Gilmour in his training uniform. Both have handwritten captions on the reverse that provide contextual information, including date, location, and names. The photograph album also has a front pocket, which held a small envelope with one photograph. The photograph has faded but a man with a motorcycle is vaguely discernible. On the back of the photograph is "Lieut. Botterell and motorcycle." The front pocket also included two additional loose photographs, one which depicts an Avro crash and one which depicts a hand-colored image of a pilot, likely Gilmour, in the cockpit of an airplane.



Komentāri:

  1. JoJosho

    Es atvainojos par iejaukšanos ... es apzinos šo situāciju. Rakstiet šeit vai PM.

  2. Orpheus

    I'm sorry, but I think you are wrong. Apspriedīsim.

  3. Kajitaur

    Yes, all is logical

  4. Maurr

    Thank you for choosing advice, how can I thank you?

  5. Arav

    jūs joprojām atceraties 18 gadsimtus



Uzrakstiet ziņojumu